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Teaching Reading to English Language Learners: Differentiating Literacies

By Socorro G. Herrera, Della R. Perez, Kathy Escamilla

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Jan 7, 2009

Description

Guiding teachers on how to meet the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse students, celebrated authors, Socorro Herrera,

Della Perez and Kathy Escamilla stress that meaning and relevance must be at the basis for all instructional activities and strategies in order to effectively develop oral and written language. In their newest book, the authors blend theory and practice that provides grade level and ESL teachers with the tools they need to differentiate literacy instruction for all students.

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Preface .............................................................................................................................           vi     

 

Chapter 1

Language, Literacy, And The CLD Students .....................................         1

Interactive Literacy: Defining Literacy For CLD Students .............................................           6

Literacy Is Biographical ........................................................................................           7

Literacy Is Fundamental ........................................................................................           9

Literacy Is Research-Based ..................................................................................         10

Essential Elements Of Literacy Development ...............................................................         10

The Theoretical Foundations of Reading ......................................................................         13

Reading the Symbols and Sounds of English: The Bottom-Up Reading Process
Model ..................................................................................................................         13

Literacy Instruction via the Bottom-Up Reading Process Model .......................         14

Schematic Connections to Text: The Top-Down Reading Process Model ..............         16

Literacy Instruction via the Top-Down Reading Process Model........................         17

Reading As a Circular Process: The Interactive Reading Process Model ................         18

Literacy Instruction via the Interactive Reading Process Model.........................         19

Conclusion..................................................................................................................         20

 

Chapter 2

Contextualizing Literacy Development For The CLD Student In The
Grade-Level Classroom .....................................................................       27

The CLD Student Biography .......................................................................................         29

The Sociocultural Dimension .................................................................................         31

Historical Background Of The Family ..............................................................         32

Literacy Resources .........................................................................................         34

Perceptions ....................................................................................................         36

The Language Dimension ......................................................................................         38

Transfer Theory ..............................................................................................         38

Stages Of Second Language Acquisition And CLD Student Literacy
Development ..................................................................................................         39

The Academic Dimension .....................................................................................         40

Prior Schooling ...............................................................................................         41

Academic Policy .............................................................................................         43

The Cognitive Dimension ......................................................................................         44

Cognition, Language, And Literacy Development ............................................         45

Culturally Relevant Texts: Making The Sociocultural Connection.......................         46

Conclusion .................................................................................................................         47

 

Chapter 3

Rethinking Phonemic Awareness: A Cross-Linguistic Transfer
Perspective ..........................................................................................       58

Phonological Awareness And Cross-Language Transfer ..............................................         61

Phonemic Awareness And Cross-Language Transfer ...................................................         63

Contextualizing Phonemic Awareness Instruction .........................................................         67

Phonemic Awareness Tasks: Identifying The Subtleties Of The English
Language ..............................................................................................................         68

Phoneme Isolation ..........................................................................................         69

Phoneme Identity ............................................................................................         72

Phoneme Categorization .................................................................................         73

Phoneme Blending ..........................................................................................         75

Phonemic Segmentation ..................................................................................         77

Phoneme Deletion ...........................................................................................         79

Phoneme Addition ..........................................................................................         80

Phoneme Substitution ......................................................................................         81

Instructional Guidelines for Phonemic Awareness ...................................................         82

Conclusion .................................................................................................................         83

 

Chapter 4

Phonics: More Than The A, B, Cs of Reading ..................................       99

What Comes First: The Letters Or The Words ............................................................       102

Phonics And Cross-Language Transfer .......................................................................       103

Contextualizing Phonics Instruction...............................................................................       107

Writing Your Own Script: Creating An Integrated Approach To Phonics
Instruction ..................................................................................................................       111

Principle 1: Phonics Knowledge Is Developmental .................................................       113

Principle 2: Phonics Instruction Is Integrated Into Beginning Reading And
Writing Instruction .............................................................................................       113

Principle 3: Phonics Knowledge Is Important Not For Itself But In Its
Application ........................................................................................................       114

Principle 4: Strategic Knowledge Is Required To Use Phonics Concepts
And Skills ..........................................................................................................       114

Principle 5: Phonics Instruction Involves Teacher Decision-Making.........................       114

Principle 6: Peers Teach Each Other Phonics As They Read And Write
Side-By-Side ....................................................................................................       115

Integrated Phonics In A Second-Grade Classroom ................................................       115

Integrated Phonics In A Fourth-Grade Classroom .................................................       117

Conclusion .................................................................................................................       119

 


Chapter 5

Vocabulary Development: A Framework For Differentiated And
Explicit Instruction .............................................................................     149

Implications Of Approaches To Vocabulary Development ...........................................       153

Current Approaches To Vocabulary Instruction .....................................................       153

Reader-Based Instruction ...............................................................................       154

Interactive Language Learning .........................................................................       155

Direct Instruction ............................................................................................       156

Teaching Vocabulary Within A Linguistic And Cultural Context .............................       157

The Cultural Biography Of The CLD Student: From The Known To The Unknown             158

Sociocultural Dimension ............................................................................       160

Linguistic Dimension .................................................................................       161

Preproduction .....................................................................................       162

Early Production .................................................................................       162

Speech Emergence .............................................................................       163

Intermediate Fluency ...........................................................................       163

Advanced Fluency ..............................................................................       164

Academic Dimension ................................................................................       165

Bridging And Connecting Through Cognates .......................................       166

Cognitive Dimension .................................................................................       167

Situating Instruction Based On The CLD Student Biography ................       168

Vocabulary Selection ....................................................................       169

Before-The-Lesson Strategies: Tapping Into Prior And
Background Knowledge To Bridge And Connect .......................       171

Practicing And Applying Academic Vocabulary .............................       174

Creating Interactive Learning Environments ...................................       176

Assessing CLD Students’ Acquisition Of English Academic
Vocabulary ................................................................................       178

Conclusion ...........................................................................................................       179

 

Chapter 6

Strategies-Based Comprehension Instruction: Linking The Known To
The Unknown......................................................................................     195

Comprehension: Constructing Meaning From Text........................................................       199

Building From The Known To The Unknown ........................................................       200

Schematic Connections In Practice ..................................................................       201

Putting Reading Comprehension Strategies Into Practice ........................................       203

Metacognitive Strategies — “Thinking About Our Thinking” ..............................       204

In My Head ..............................................................................................       206

True Or False? .........................................................................................       206

Sticking To The Main Idea ........................................................................       207

Question Bookmark .................................................................................       208

Cognitive Strategies To Promote Reading Comprehension ...............................       208

SEA Box ..................................................................................................       209

Visualize-Interact-Predict (VIP) ................................................................       209

1, 2, 3 Imagery .........................................................................................       212

Signature Lines .........................................................................................       212

Story Retelling ..........................................................................................       213

Social/Affective Comprehension Strategies ......................................................       215

Critical Questions .....................................................................................       215

Through My Eyes .....................................................................................       216

Conclusion .................................................................................................................       217

 

Chapter 7

Fluency In Practice: More Than “Reading” The Text ......................     247

Deep Constructs Of Fluency Development ..................................................................       250

The Multiple Dimensions Of Phonemic Awareness And Phonics ............................       250

Decoding Through Cross-Language Transfer ...................................................       250

Articulation Of Orthographic Cues ..................................................................       252

Prosidic Elements Of The English Language In Practice ...................................       254

Stressing The Important Sounds In Words ................................................       254

High Tones And Low Tones Of The English Language ..............................       255

Phrasing And Reading Fluency ..................................................................       256

The Role Of Vocabulary Knowledge ....................................................................       257

Automaticity Through Repeated Reading .........................................................       258

Comprehension As The Key..................................................................................       261

Learning Strategies In Practice ........................................................................       262

Supporting Fluency Development Through Collaboration .............................................       263

Acting On Fluency: Readers’ Theater For CLD Students .......................................       264

Choral Reading .....................................................................................................       266

Repeated Reading ................................................................................................       268

Sustained Partner Reading ....................................................................................       269

Conclusion..................................................................................................................       270

 

Chapter 8

Implications Of Culture And Language In Writing ...........................     283

Differences Between Oral And Written Language Development ...................................       288

Teaching Writing In A Second Language .....................................................................       289

Discourse Patterns ................................................................................................       293

Interactive + Direct Approaches To Teaching Writing To CLD Students ................       294     

Getting Started: Beginning Writing ...................................................................       295

Interactive Spelling For CLD Students: From Individual To Cooperative
Team ...........................................................................................................       299

Assessing The Writing Of Second Language Learners: Looking For
Strengths.........................................................................................................       301

Conclusion .................................................................................................................       305

 

Chapter 9

Outside The Lines: Assessment Beyond The Politics Of
High Stakes Tests................................................................................     324

Overtested Without A Foundation ...............................................................................       327

Authentic Assessment Defined ....................................................................................       328

Authentic Reading Assessment (ARA) Within A CLD Context ....................................       329

Socioculturally Speaking .......................................................................................       330

Language As A Cultural Response ........................................................................       330

Academic Considerations .....................................................................................       332

Cognitive Pathways ..............................................................................................       332

Point Of Departure: Preinstructional ARA ...................................................................       333

Thinking, Learning, And Formative Assessment ...........................................................       334

Feedback In Formative Assessment ......................................................................       334

Questions As Tools In Reading Assessment ..........................................................       336

Putting The Pieces Together: Student Case Studies ......................................................       338

Yamin: Where Am I? ............................................................................................       338

So Yeong: Between Two Worlds ..........................................................................       342

Conclusion .................................................................................................................       347

 

Chapter 10

Inclusive Literacy Instruction for CLD Students ...............................     361

Setting The Goal: Standards-Driven Literacy Instruction  .............................................       365

The Standards For English Language Arts .............................................................       365

ESL Standards For Pre-K — 12 ............................................................................       369

Fidelity And The CLD Learner ...................................................................................       371

Embedding Strategies In Your Existing Curriculum .................................................       372

Standards — Reading Programs — CLD Student Biography ..........................................       373

Sociocultural Knowledge ......................................................................................       373

Linguistic Knowledge ............................................................................................       374

Academic Knowledge ..........................................................................................       375

Cognitive Knowledge ...........................................................................................       376

Conclusion .................................................................................................................       377

 

Glossary .....................................................................................................................       382

References..................................................................................................................       387

Purchase Info

ISBN-10: 0-205-49217-7

ISBN-13: 978-0-205-49217-6

Format: Book

$67.80

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