## Description

**This concise and practical text describes the major educational computer applications and provides methods for using computer tools effectively in the teaching/learning process.**

The author focuses on the word processor, database, spreadsheet, Internet, and hypermedia software–tools that all classrooms with computers have. The text is independent of hardware and equally applicable to Macs or PCs, and speaks to methods that apply across grade levels and disciplines. The text has been extensively class tested and written from the perspective of what will work for teachers. Many helpful models, lesson plans, skill–building tips and activities are included to allow students to **pick up this book and put it to use in the classroom right away.**

## Table of Contents

Chapter One

Teaching with Computers Effectively? 3

Te*chnology Operations and Concepts 3 Learning Environments 4 Teaching, Learning, and the Curriculum 5 What Is an Instructional Model? 6 Assessment and Evaluation 7 Productivity and Professional Practice 8 Social, Ethical, Legal, and Human Issues 9 Preparing Students for the World of Work 10*

Three Kinds of Computer Use 11

*Teaching about Computers: Computer Literacy 11 Using the Computer as a Teacher for Your Students 13 Using a Computer as a Cognitive Tool 15*

Summary 18

References 18

Annotated Resources 20

**Chapter Two **

An Introduction to Computers for Teaching 22

Objectives 22

Instructional Models and Computers 25

*What Does the Research Say about Using Computers in Classrooms? 26 Constructing Technology-Supported Lessons 28*

Summary 30

References 30

Annotated Resources 30

Part Two

The Internet: Information Retrieval

and Communication

Acquiring and judging the value of information and exchanging information are the topics of Part Two of this book. One of the greatest strengths of the Internet is its role as a repository of information. In addition, Internet-based communication, including e-mail and web-based conferencing, helps students acquire information from each other and from experts. It provides opportunities for collaboration

during problem-based learning activities. Furthermore, the Internet is becoming

a classroom itself. It is a medium in which a broad range of courses and learning activities are available for both children and adults. In addition to its role as a repository for information, the Internet is a powerful tool for communication.

You will learn how to design instruction based on communication over the Internet. As your students use the Internet for this purpose, they will improve their writing skills as they acquire information.

**Chapter Three **Information Retrieval 32

Objectives 32

A Short History of the Internet 32

The Modern Internet 34

Using the Internet for Research 35

*Asking Questions 35 Accessing Information 37 Analyzing 39 The WebQuest 42 Copyright Issues and the Internet 45 Bloom’s Taxonomy and Internet Research 47*

Listservs 48

Distance Learning 50

*Interactive Television 50 Internet-Based Courses 51 Summary of Key Elements of Distance Instruction 52*

Summary 52

References 53

Annotated Resources 55

**Chapter Four **

Web Tools: E-mail and Discussion Boards 58

Objectives 58

E-mail 59

Discussion Boards 62

A More Elaborate Use of E-mail 67

Asynchronous Communication: Tools and Methods 71

*E-mail 71 Web Boards 73 Keeping Track in a Discussion: Three Ways 74 Search Function 75 Discussion Monitoring 77 Planning and Evaluating Asynchronous Communication Projects 78*

Summary 81

References 81

Annotated Resources 81

Part Three Displaying Information

Before the computer, students had fewer formats in which they could display

information. They wrote most reports in text–handwritten or typewritten. Some students would cut pictures out of magazines to include with reports. All charts and graphs were hand made and hand calculated. Students with poor writing

skills had limited opportunities to work with many facts and ideas on the higher levels of Bloom’s taxonomy because they had to be more concerned with producing a legible product with passable grammar. This is not to say that legibility and grammar are not important, but a focus on them can keep students from learning other skills that are just as important. Presentation software and word processors allow students to work with large ideas and concepts, much as the

calculator shifts students from a focus on computational errors to looking at the large ideas in mathematics.

The process that students use to display information in a computer-based presentation provides opportunities for them to organize and contextualize the

information. Organizing information, or, better, finding the organization that is inherent in information, is one way to learn it well (Gagne et al., 1993; Woolfolk, 2000).*

*References for Woolfolk and Gagne et al. appear in Chapters 5 and 6, respectively.

**Chapter Five **Presentation Software 83

Objectives 83

Office Suites and Teachers–How Do They Apply

to Classrooms? 83

*Capabilities of Office Suites 83 Office Suites and Projects 83*

Presentation Software 86

*Displaying Information: Key to Creating Understanding 88 The Role of Interactivity 88*

Executing a Hypermedia-Supported Lesson Plan 91

Summary 92

References 93

Annotated Resources 93

**Chapter Six **

Graphic and Interface Design Principles 94

Objectives 94

*Rule 1: Use General Design Principles 95 Rule 2: Orient Users 95 Rule 3: Justify Text Appropriately 97 Rule 4: Limit Type Styles 98 Rule 5: Limit Colors 98 Rule 6: Standardize Use of Colors 99 Rule 7: Enhance Text with Graphics and Interactivity 99 Rule 8: Eliminate Superfluous Items 99 Rule 9: Use Upper- and Lowercase 99 *

*Rule 10: Keep Text Lines Short 100 Rule 11:*

Use Single Spacing 100 Rule 12: Simplify the Structure 100 Rule 13: Limit the Focus 100 Rule 14: Provide Emphasis 101 Rule 15: Know Your Audience 101

Use Single Spacing 100 Rule 12: Simplify the Structure 100 Rule 13: Limit the Focus 100 Rule 14: Provide Emphasis 101 Rule 15: Know Your Audience 101

*Rule 16: Do Not Flash 101 Rule 17: Use Lists 102 Rule 18: Navigate Consistently 102 Rule 19: Do Not*

Stack Text 102 Rule 20: Include Multiple Graphic Types 102 Rule 21: Organize the Screen 102 Rule 22: Size Matters 103 Rule 23: Placement Matters 103

Stack Text 102 Rule 20: Include Multiple Graphic Types 102 Rule 21: Organize the Screen 102 Rule 22: Size Matters 103 Rule 23: Placement Matters 103

Summary 105

References 105

Annotated Resources 105

**Chapter Seven **

Outlines, Idea Maps, and Storyboards 107

Objectives 107

Outlines 108

Idea Maps 109

*Concepts: Examples and Properties 111 Questions and Answers about Idea Mapping 113*

Storyboards 120

Branching 121

*Hot Words 121 Hot Graphics 122 Icons 122 Menus 122 Branches That Help Users Get around in the Software 123*

Summary 126

References 129

Annotated Resources 129

**Chapter Eight **

Evaluating Student Presentations 131

Objectives 131

Rubrics 131

*Creating Standards for Your Students 132 Some Notes on the Components of the Rubrics 134*

Questions and Answers about Using Multimedia

Presentations 140

Summary 141

References 142

**Chapter Nine **

Educational Applications of Word Processing 143

Objectives 143

Management Issues: How Many Computers

Do You Have? 144

*One-Computer Classroom 144 Five-Computer Classroom: “Jigsaw Model” 144 Laboratory 145*

The Models: Using the Word Processor to Teach

Content and Skills 145

*High-Level Analysis and Skills 146 Targeted Learning Problems 151*

Word Processing Tips 151

*Bullets and Numbered Lists 151 Using Tables to Organize Information 152 Making Links to the Internet 152 Importing Information from Other Applications 154 Spelling and Spell Checkers 154 Readability Statistics and Grammar Checkers 156*

Text-Reading Software 157

Summary 161

References 161

Annotated Resources 162

Part Four

Analyzing Data with Databases

and Spreadsheets

Chapter Ten

Databases: What They Are and How They Work 163

Objectives 163

Solving Problems Outside the Classroom: Three Stories 164

*A Business Problem 164 A Scientific Problem 164 An Ethical and Sociological Problem 164 Databases Help People Think about Difficult Problems 165*

Databases in the Classroom 165

*How Do Databases Support Student Learning? 166 What Do Students and Teachers Need to Know? 167*

Getting Started: Teaching the Tool 167

*Form View 168 Table View or List View 169*

Sorts and Queries 172

*The Sort: Putting Information in Order 172 The Query: Classifying Information 175 Grade-Level Suggestions 178 How to Provide Student Assistance 179*

Planning Your Database 182

Summary 184

References 185

**Chapter Eleven **

Building a Database-Supported Lesson 186

Objectives 186

Templates for Building Database-Supported Lessons 186

Learning with a Database: Describing an Unknown 188

Analyzing a Lesson Plan 193

Understanding the Steps 195

*Set Up the Problem 195 Teach the Nature of the Questioning Process 199 Focus and Explore 200 Students Write Their Own Questions 201 Require a Product 204 Have Students Make Comparisons 204 Encourage Students to Resolve Discrepancies 205 Encourage Students to Think about Using Databases to Solve Other Problems 205*

Summative Evaluation of a Database Project 205

Summary 209

References 210

Annotated Resources 210

**Chapter Twelve **

Acquiring Data 212

Objectives 212

How Do Teachers Acquire Datasets? 212

*Data on the Internet: Examples of Some Good Sites 213*

Formatting Data for Use in a Database 215

*Technique 1: Making Raw Internet Data Usable 215 Technique 2: Internet Databases with Their Own Search Engines 218 Technique 3: Building Your Own Database 219*

Summary 220

References 220

Annotated Resources 221

**Chapter Thirteen**

Using Spreadsheets to Think

about Numbers 223

Objectives 223

Numbers as Tools beyond Math 223

*Choosing the Problem 225*

The Versatile Spreadsheet 225

*Easy Spreadsheet Tools 225*

Descriptive Statistics 228

*Example: Understanding How Soil Affects Plants 228*

Descriptive Statistics: What Do They Mean? 233

*Mode 234 Median 234 Mean 235 Mean, Median, and Mode and Scales of Measurement 235 Standard Deviation 237*

Using Simple Arithmetic Outside the Math Class 237

Charts and Graphs 240

*Bar Charts and Column Charts 240 Pie Charts 242 Area Charts and Bar Charts–Looking at Data over Time 243 Pivot Tables 243 Formulas 244*

A Model for Spreadsheet Use 247

Bloom’s Taxonomy and Spreadsheets 247

Summary 247

References 249

Annotated Resources 250

Appendix A Your Network 251

Appendix B File Management 259

Appendix C Chat and Internet Conferencing 263

White Board 263

Application Sharing 264

File Sharing 266

Advantages and Disadvantages 266

Audio and Video Conferencing 267

Appendix D Concept Maps 273

Idea Maps for Events 277

Looking at the Big Picture 283

Appendix E

Sample Database for an English Class 287

American Society Reflected in Fiction 287

*Step 1 288 Step 2 288 Step 3 289 Step 4 289*

Index 291

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