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THINK Critically, 2nd Edition

By Peter Facione, Carol Ann Gittens

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Jan 23, 2012

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THINK Currency. THINK Relevancy. THINK Critically.


THINK Critically is a cutting-edge, self-reflective guide for improving critical thinking skills through careful analysis, reasoned inference, and thoughtful evaluation of contemporary culture and ideas.


An engaging visual design developed with extensive student feedback and 15-page chapters makes THINK Critically the textbook your students will actually read. It delivers the core concepts of critical thinking in a way they can easily understand. Additionally, engaging examples and masterful exercises help students learn to clarify ideas, analyze arguments, and evaluate reasoning.


A better teaching and learning experience
This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience—for you and your students. Here’s how:

  • Improve Critical Thinking – “Think Critically” exercises are positioned throughout each chapter to help students build skills. 
  • Engage Students – In-text features include “Map It Out” sections, video clips, and Web-based multimedia examples.
  • Support Instructors – Four new optional chapters are available through the Pearson Custom Library, and a comprehensive supplements package is available to be packaged with this text. 


Table of Contents

Found in this section:

1. Brief Table of Contents

2. Full Table of Contents




Chapter 1 The Power of Critical Thinking

Chapter 2 Skilled and Eager to Think

Chapter 3 Solve Problems and Succeed in College

Chapter 4 Clarify Ideas and Concepts

Chapter 5 Analyze Arguments and Diagram Decisions

Chapter 6 Evaluate the Credibility of Claims and Sources

Chapter 7 Evaluate Arguments: The Four Basic Tests

Chapter 8 Evaluate Deductive Reasoning and Spot Deductive Fallacies
Chapter 9 Evaluate Inductive Reasoning and Spot Inductive Fallacies

Chapter 10 Think Heuristically: Risks and Benefits of Snap Judgments

Chapter 11 Think Reflectively: Strategies for Decision Making

Chapter 12 Comparative Reasoning: Think “This Is Like That”

Chapter 13 Ideological Reasoning: Think “Top Down”

Chapter 14 Empirical Reasoning: Think “Bottom Up”

Chapter 15 Write Sound and Effective Arguments 

Appendix  Extend Argument-Decision Mapping Strategies




Supplemental Chapter A Think Like a Social Scientist

Supplemental Chapter B Think Like a Natural Scientist

Supplemental Chapter C Ethical Decision Making

Supplemental Chapter D The Logic of Declarative Statements




How the Book Is Organized
About the Authors


Chapter 1: The Power of Critical Thinking

Risk and Uncertainty Abound
          Critical Thinking and a Free Society
          The One and the Many
What Do We Mean by “Critical Thinking”?
          Expert Consensus Conceptualization
          “Critical Thinking” Does Not Mean “Negative Thinking”
          How to Get the Most Out of This Book
Evaluating Critical Thinking
                   The Students’ Assignment—Kennedy Act
                   The Students’ Statements—Kennedy Act

          The Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric

                   The Students’ Assignment—Haiti

                   The Students’ Statements—Haiti

Chapter Review


Chapter 2: Skilled and Eager to Think

Positive Critical Thinking Habits of Mind
          The Spirit of Strong Critical Thinker
          Positive and Negative Habits of Mind
                   Preliminary Self-Assessment
          Research on Critical Thinking Habits of Mind
                   Seven Positive Critical Thinking Habits of Mind
                   Negative Habits of Mind
                   Is a Good Critical Thinker Automatically a Good Person?
          Building Positive Habits of Mind
Core Critical Thinking Skills
          Interpreting and Analyzing the Consensus Statement
                   The Jury Is Deliberating
          Critical Thinking Skills Fire in Many Combinations
          Strengthening Our Core Critical Thinking Skills
          The Art of the Good Question
          Skills and Subskills Defined
A First Look at Inductive and Deductive Reasoning
          Nurses’ Health Study—Decades of Data
          Inductive Reasoning
          Cosmos vs. Chaos
          Deductive Reasoning
How to Get The Most Out of This Book
Chapter Review

Chapter 3: Solve Problems and Succeed in College

Ideas: A 5-Step Critical Thinking Problem-Solving Process
Educating the Whole Person
          Social Relationships
                   STEP 1: IDENTIFY the Problem and Set Priorities
                   STEP 1: IDENTIFY the Problem and Set Priorities
                   STEP 2: DEEPEN Understanding and Gather Relevant Information
                   The First Two IDEAS Steps in Maria’s Case
                   STEP 3: ENUMERATE Options and Anticipate Consequences
          Health and Physical Well-being
                   The First Three Steps in Leah’s Case
                   STEP 4: ASSESS  the Situation and Make a Preliminary Decision
          Emotional Well-being
                   STEP 5: SCRUTINIZE  Processes and Self-Correct As Needed
          Spiritual Development
Chapter Review


Chapter 4: Clarify Ideas and Concepts

Interpretation, Context, and Purpose
          How Precise Is Precise Enough?
          Language and Thought
          Vagueness: “Where Are the Boundaries, Does the Term Include This Case or Not?”
          Problematic Vagueness
          Ambiguity: “Which Sense of the Term Are We Using, Does It Mean This, or Does It Mean That?”
          Problematic Ambiguity
Resolving Problematic Vagueness and Problematic Ambiguity
          Clarifying Original Intent
          Negotiating the Meaning
          Using Qualifications, Exceptions, or Exclusions
          Stipulating the Meaning
Your Language Communities
          National and Global Language Communities
          Language Communities Formed of People with Like Interests
          Academic Disciplines as Language Communities
          Critical Thinking and College Introductory Courses
Chapter Review


Chapter 5: Analyze Arguments and Diagram Decisions

Analyzing and Mapping Arguments
          “Argument = (Reason + Claim)”
                   Two Reasons, Two Arguments
                   Two Confusions to Avoid
                   “Reason” and “Premise”
                   Distinguishing Reasons from Conclusion
          Mapping Claims and Reasons
                   Mapping a Line of Reasoning
                   Mapping Implicit Ideas
          Interpreting Unspoken Reasons and Claims in Context
          Interpreting the Use of Irony, Humor, Sarcasm, and More
Giving Reasons and Making Arguments in Real Life
          The El Train Argument
          Huckabee and Stewart Discuss “The Pro-Life Issue—Abortion”
Analyzing and Mapping Decisions
          “We Should Cancel the Spring Trip” #1
          “We Should Cancel the Spring Trip” #2
Chapter Review


Chapter 6: Evaluate the Credibility of Claims and Sources

Assessing the Source—Whom Should I Trust?
          Claims without Reasons
          Cognitive Development and Healthy Skepticism
          Authority and Expertise
                   Learned and Experienced
                   On-Topic, Up-to-Date, and Capable of Explaining
                   Unbiased and Truthful
                   Free of Conflicts of Interest, and Acting in the Client’s Interest
                   Unconstrained, Informed, and Mentally Stable
                   Twelve Characteristics of a Trustworthy Source
Assessing the Substance—What Should I Believe?
          Donkey Dung Detector
                   Self-Contradictions and Tautologies
          Marketing, Spin, Disinformation, and Propaganda
          Slanted Language and Loaded Expressions
Independent Verification
          Can the Claim Be Confirmed?
          Can the Claim Be Disconfirmed?
          Independent Investigation and the Q-Ray Bracelet Case
          Suspending Judgment
Chapter Review


Chapter 7: Evaluate Arguments: The Four Basic Tests

Giving Reasons and Making Arguments
          Logical Strength
The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments
          Test #1: Truthfulness of the Premises
          Test #2: Logical Strength
          Test #3: Relevance
          Test #4: Non-Circularity
          Contexts for Argument Making and Evaluative Terms
Common Reasoning Errors
          Fallacies of Relevance
                   Appeals to Ignorance
                   Appeals to the Mob
                   Appeals to Emotion
                   Ad Hominem Attacks
                   Straw Man Fallacy
                   Playing with Words Fallacy
                   Misuse of Authority Fallacy
Chapter Review


Chapter 8: Evaluate Deductive Reasoning and Spot Deductive Fallacies

Deductive Validity and Language
          Reasoning Deductively about Declarative Statements
                   Denying the Consequent
                   Affirming the Antecedent
                   Disjunctive Syllogism
          Reasoning Deductively about Classes of Objects
                   Applying a Generalization
                   Applying an Exception
                   The Power of “Only”
          Reasoning Deductively about Relationships
                   Transitivity, Reflexivity, and Identity
Fallacies Masquerading as Valid Deductive Arguments
          Fallacies When Reasoning with Declarative Statements
                   Affirming the Consequent
                   Denying the Antecedent
          Fallacies When Reasoning about Classes of Objects
                   False Classification
                   Fallacies of Composition and Division
          Mistaken Identity
                   False Reference
Chapter Review


Chapter 9: Evaluate Inductive Reasoning and Spot Inductive Fallacies

Inductions and the Evidence at Hand
          Evaluating Generalizations
                   Was the Correct Group Sampled?
                   Were the Data Obtained in an Effective Way?
                   Were Enough Cases Considered?
                   Was the Sample Representatively Structured?
          Coincidences, Correlations, and Causes
Fallacies Masquerading as Strong Inductive Arguments
          Erroneous Generalization
          Playing with Numbers
          False Dilemma
          The Gambler’s Fallacy
          False Cause
          Slippery Slope
Chapter Review


Chapter 10: Think Heuristically: Risks and Benefits of Snap Judgments

Human Decision-Making Systems
          The “Two-Systems” Approach to Human Decision Making
                   Reactive (System-1) Thinking
                   Reflective (System-2) Thinking
          The Value of Each System
Heuristics: Their Benefits and Risks
          Individual Cognitive Heuristics
                   1. Satisficing and 2. Temporizing
                   3. Affect: “Go with your Gut”
                   4. Simulation
                   5. Availability
                   6. Representation
                   7.  Association
                   8.  Stereotyping
                   9. “Us vs. Them”
                   10. Power Differential
                   11.  Anchoring with Adjustment
                   12. Illusion of Control
                   13. Optimistic Bias and 14. Hindsight Bias
                   15. Elimination by Aspect: “One Strike and You’re Out”
                   16.  Loss and Risk Aversion
                   17. “All or Nothing”
          Heuristics in Action
Chapter Review


Chapter 11: Think Reflectively: Strategies for Decision Making

Dominance Structuring: A Fortress of Conviction
          “I Would Definitely Go to the Doctor”
          Explaining and Defending Ourselves
                   A Poorly Crafted Assignment
          Moving from Decision to Action 
                   Phase 1: Pre-editing
                   Phase 2: Identifying One Promising Option
                   Phase 3: Testing the Promising Option
                   Phase 4: Fortifying the To-Be-Chosen Option
          Benefits and Risks of Dominance Structuring
          The Classic “O. J. Defense” Example
Self-Regulation Critical Thinking Skill Strategies
          Critical Thinking Precautions When Pre-Editing
                   Be Sure about “the Problem”
                   Specify the Decision-Critical Attributes
                   Be Clear about Why an Option Is In or Out
          Critical Thinking Precautions When Identifying the Promising Option
                   Scrutinize Options with Disciplined Impartiality
                   Listen to Both Sides First
          Critical Thinking Precautions When Testing the Promising Option
                   Use All the Essential Criteria
                   Treat Equals as Equals
                   Diligently Engage in Truth-Seeking and Remain Impartial
          Critical Thinking Precautions When Fortifying the To-Be-Chosen Option
                   Be Honest with Yourself
          Critical Thinking Strategies for Better Decision Making
                   Task Independent Teams with the Same Problem
                   Decide When It’s Time to Decide
                   Analyze Indicators and Make Mid-Course Corrections
                   Create a Culture of Respect for Critical Thinking
Chapter Review


Chapter 12: Comparative Reasoning: Think “This is Like That”

Comparative, Ideological, and Empirical Inferences
“This is Like That”—Recognizing Comparative Reasoning
          Gardens of Comparatives
          Powerful Comparisons Connect Intellect and Emotion
Evaluating Comparative Inferences
          Do the Four Tests of Acceptability Apply?
          Five Criteria for Evaluating Comparative Reasoning
          Shaping Our View of the Universe for Two Thousand Years
          The Many Uses of Comparative Inferences
Chapter Review


Chapter 13: Ideological Reasoning: Think “Top Down”

“Top Down” Thinking: Recognizing Ideological Reasoning
          Examples of Ideological Reasoning
          Three Features of Ideological Reasoning
                   Ideological Reasoning Is Deductive in Character
                   Ideological Premises Are Axiomatic
                   The Argument Maker Takes the Ideological Absolutes on Faith
Evaluating Ideological Reasoning
          Are the Ideological Premises True?
          Logical Strength and Ideological Belief Systems
          Relevancy, Non-Circularity, and Ideological Reasoning
Uses, Benefits, and Risks of Ideological Reasoning
Chapter Review


Chapter 14: Empirical Reasoning: Think “Bottom Up”

Recognizing Empirical Reasoning
          Characteristics of Empirical Reasoning
                   Empirical Reasoning Is Inductive
                   Empirical Reasoning Is Self-Corrective
                   Empirical Reasoning Is Open to Independent Verification
                   Hypotheses, Conditions, and Measureable Manifestations
Conducting an Investigation Scientifically
          Perhaps the First Recorded Empirical Investigations
          Steps in the Process of an Extended Example
          Evaluating Empirical Reasoning
Benefits and Risks Associated with Empirical Reasoning
Chapter Review


Chapter 15: Write Sound and Effective Arguments

What Critical Thinking Questions Do Effective Writers Ask?
          Think Author
                   Find Your Voice
                   Think about Who You Read
          Think Audience
                   What Does the Audience Care About?
                   Writing For You       
                   Who Is Your Audience?
                   Same Author and Audience, Different Purpose
          Think Purpose and Circumstances
                   Think Tactics
                   Clues from Contextual Cues
Think How to Organize and Develop Your Presentation
          Reach Out and Grab Someone
          Crafting a Presentation
          Good News: Writing Is Work
                   An Arguable Thesis Statement and Solid Research
                   Map Out the Arguments Pro and Con—Then Outline Your Case
          Evaluating the Credibility of Sources
          Prewriting, Writing, and Rewriting
          Two Practical Tips
Evaluating Effectiveness
          Features of Sound and Effective Written Argumentation
          A Tool for Evaluating Critical Thinking and Writing
                   How to Apply the Rubric for Evaluating Written Argumentation
Chapter Review


Appendix  Extend Argument-Decision Mapping Strategies

                   Mapping the Sequence of Arguments
                   Mapping Forms of Inference
                   Mapping Supporting Information
                   Mapping the Decision System
                   Less Is More
                   Schwarzenegger’s Denial of Clemency
                   Map Group Decision Making
                   Research Applications



Supplemental Chapter A: Think Like a Social Scientist

What Critical Thinking Questions Do Social Scientists Ask?
          Thinking Like a Social Scientist

          The Spirit of Scientific Inquiry Can Manifest Itself Early in Life

          Think Participants
          Think Situation
          Think Actions
          Think Motivation
Social Science Investigative Methods
          Let the Question Drive the Investigatory Technique
                   Data Gathering Techniques
                   Practical and Logistical Challenges
                   Motivations and Temptations
                   The “I’m on Camera” Effect
Thinking About the Standards
          No Simple Explanations of Complex Phenomena
          Proceeding with Warranted Confidence
                   Statistical Analyses
                   Narrative Analyses
          The Risks Inherent in All Human Judgments
                   Critical Thinking Self-Regulation
                   We Are What We Study
                   We Affect What We Study
                   Finding What Isn’t There and Not Finding What Is There
                   Integrating Findings
Thinking about Social Science in the Real World (Applications)
          Example One: Business Administration
          Example Two: Elementary Education
Chapter Review


Supplemental Chapter B: Think Like a Natural Scientist

What Critical Thinking Questions Do Natural Scientists Ask?
          Thinking Like a Natural Scientist
          Think Curious and Intriguing Natural Phenomenon
          Think Empirically Testable Causal Explanation
          Think How to Prevent and How to Bring About the Phenomenon
          Think How to Integrate New Knowledge with Broader Scientific Understandings
Methods of Scientific Investigation
          Let the Empirical Question Drive the Inquiry
Thinking About the Standards
          Confidence in Scientific Findings
                   “True to a Scientific Certainty”
                   Finding What Isn’t There and Not Finding What Is There

Confidence in Scientific Theories
Thinking about Real-World Applications of Natural Science
Chapter Review


Supplemental Chapter C: Ethical Decision Making

Ethical Imperatives
          Think Consequences
          Think Duties
          Think Virtues
Decision Making and Ethical Decision Making
          Some Factors Affect Many Decisions
          Reactive and Reflective Ethical Decision Making
Thinking Through Diverging Ethical Imperatives
          Prioritize, Create, and Negotiate
                   Establish Priorities
                   Create Additional Options
                   Negotiate Based On Each Party’s Interests
          Personal Consistency and Respect for Others
          Apply the “Golden Rule”—Do Unto Others as You Would Have Others Do Unto You
Chapter Review


Supplemental Chapter D: The Logic of Declarative Statements

Part 1: Statements
          Simple Statements
          Statement Compounds: “And”, “Or”, “If, then,” etc.
Part 2: Translating Between Symbolic Logic and a Natural Language
          Grammatically Correct Expressions
          Translatiing to English
          Translating to Symbolic Logic
                   Example: Translating a Telephone Tree
                   What the Telephone Tree Example Teaching About Translation
Part 3: Detecting the Logical Characteristics of Statements
          Building Truth-Tables
          Tautologies, Inconsistent Statements, and Contingent Statements
          Testing for Implication and Equivalence
Part 4: Evaluating Arguments for Validity
          Testing Symbolic Arguments for Validity
          Testing Natural Language Arguments for Validity
Chapter Review