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Understanding and Managing Emotional and Behavior Disorders in the Classroom, CourseSmart eTextbook

By Grad L. Flick

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Jun 29, 2010

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Description

Comprehensive and current, this new text will prepare future educators to successfully instruct students with emotional and behavior disorders in their classrooms. Readers will be given a sound introduction on the subject, from the foundations of the disorders, to a discussion of risk and protective factors, and also a general bio-psychosocial model. Several, particularly hard-to-manage disorders are featured in multiple chapters, and assessment is briefly addressed, including comparing Functional Behavior Assessment with regular assessment, the Behavior Intervention Plans, and Individual Education Plans. Behavior problems manifested and managed in the classroom is reviewed, with an emphasis on the development of positive behavioral interventions and supports. Also discussed are specific behavior interventions for problematic behavior, focusing on how such students are best taught, and how a positive school-wide program enhances the probability of program success. Families and siblings, along with promising future directions are also included, as well as thought-provoking case studies featured throughout the text. Special features of the text include: Overview and Discussion Questions at the beginning of every chapter, and a Summary and follow-up Discussion Questions at the conclusion, boxed features found throughout each chapter to clarify and further describe important content, including law-related issues, and thought-provoking case studies are dispersed throughout. The whole text will stimulate its readers to think about the behavior problems and issues they might address in the real classroom and how to best deal with each situation.

Table of Contents

Understanding and Managing Emotional And

Behavior Disorders in the Classroom

 

Table of Contents

About This Book

            Preface

            Audience

            Acknowledgements

Part I: Foundations of Behavior Disorders

Chapter 1: Behavior Disorders and Interventions in Today’s Classrooms

Overview

Case History

Incidence of Emotional and Behavior Disorders

Cultural Similarity

Related Statistics

Addressing Behavior Problems

Special Education

Statistical Trends

Disability Categories

            Medical & Social Systems Models of Disabilities

            Focus on Emotional & Behavioral Disorders

Classification of Disability

             Problems with Disability Classification

             Advantages of Labeling in Special Education

             Disadvantages of Labeling in Special Education

DSM IV – Diagnosis in Classification

            Problems with DSM IV Classifications

            Labeling: A New Direction

An Alternative Classification System

            Dimensional versus Categorical Classification

            Etiological Versus Functional Classification

            Multidimensional versus Unidimensional Classification

            Providing Effective Intervention

Summary

Discussion Questions

 

Chapter 2: Understanding Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

Overview

Case History

Development of Behavior Problems

Origins of Emotional and Behavior Disorders

Risk Factors/Causes

            Biological Influences

            Psychosocial and Environmental Influences

            Family and Genetic Risk Factors

Relationships Among Risk Factors and  Protective Factors

Cognitive and Behavioral Development: Major Theories

            Early Experiences

            Social Relationships

            Learning

Education of the Behaviorally Disordered

Theories of Child Development

Models for Emotional and Behavior Disorders

            The Biopsychosocial Model

Developmental Issues

            Deviant versus  Normal Child Development

            Developmental Psychopathology

Developmental Acquisition of Behavior Disorders

The Transactional Model

The Interaction Model

Dynamics of Emotional and Behavioral Problems

            Hierarchy of Responses

The Constructivist Model

The Nature-Nurture Model

The Environmentalist Model

The Behavioral Model

Summary

Discussion Questions

 

Chapter 3: Educational Outcome of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

Overview

Case History

Praise & Opportunity to Respond (OTR)

Classroom Organization

Teacher Preparation

Improving Post-School Outcomes for EBD Students

            Educational Outcomes

            Current Employment

            Current Social Relationships

A National Agenda for Education SED Students

President’s Commission on Excellence in Special Education

Models of service Delivery for Special Education

            Full Inclusion Model

            Conciliatory Model

            Conservationist Model

Types of Classrooms

            Learner Centered Classroom

            Curriculum Centered Classroom

Researched Interventions for Behavior Problems

Summary

Discussion Questions

 

Part II: Recognizing Emotional and Behavior Disorders

 

Chapter 4: Externalizing Disorders

Overview

Case History

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

Conduct Disorder (CD)

Tics and Tourette’s Disorder

Summary

Discussion Questions

 

Chapter 5: Mood Disorders and Other Behavior Disorders

Overview

Case History

Mood Disorders

            Depression

            Bipolar Disorders

            Activities and Strategies for Mood Disorders

Other Behavior Disorders

            Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

            Fragile-X Syndrome

            Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

Summary

Discussion Questions

 

Chapter 6: Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) and Psychotic Disorders

Overview

Case History

Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD)

            Autism

            Asperger’s Disorder

Psychotic Disorders

            Childhood Schizophrenia

Summary

Discussion Questions

 

Part III: Identifying and Assessing Behavior Disorders

Chapter 7:  Assessment of Behavior Disorders

Overview

Case History

Introduction to Assessment

Arriving at a Differential Diagnosis

            Background and Developmental History

            Behavior Observations

            Basic Psychological Tests

            Psychometric Terminology

            Psychological/Neuropsychological Assessment

            Rationale for Neuropsychological Assessment

Symptom Overlap

The Neuropsychological Diagnostic Approach

Specific Tests versus Test Batteries

A Multidisciplinary Evaluation

            Components of the Neuropsychological Assessment

            The Diagnostic Process

Interpretation of Test Data

Functional Impairment

Summary

Discussion Questions

 

Chapter 8: Functional Behavioral Assessment

Overview

Case History

The FBA and BIP Process

            Defining the Problem Behavior

            Identifying Specific Events, Times and Situations

            Obtaining Background Information

            Identify the Consequences

            Developing a Theory or Hypothesis

Understanding the Function of Behavior

            The Basic Functions of Behavior

            Primary Functions of Problem Behavior

The Functional Behavioral Assessment

            Conducting a Functional Behavioral Assessment

            The Methods and Tools Needed  to Conduct an FBA

The Goals of Intervention

            Meeting the Intervention Goals

            Replacing Behavior Problems

            Selecting Positive Interventions and Individual Reinforcers

Failure to Show Appropriate Behavior

            Skill Deficits

            Performance Deficits

Comprehensive Intervention Plans

            Family Involvement

Formal Assessment versus Functional Behavioral Assessment

Functional Behavioral Assessment Model: Assessment

            Type of Problem Behavior

            Dimensions of Behavior

            Assessment Methods

            Quality of Data

            Social Validity

Using Functional Assessment to Change Behavior

Development of a Positive Function-Based Support Plan

Summary

Discussion Questions

 

Chapter 9:  The Behavioral Intervention Plan and Development of the IEP

Overview

Case History

IDEA 2004 and Behavior Disorders

Developing a Behavioral Intervention Plan (BIP)

            BIP Components

Evaluating and Monitoring the BIP

Effectiveness of the FBA and BIP

Positive Behavioral Intervention Plan

Using Extraordinary Discipline Procedures

            Managing Dangerous Behavior

Motivational Considerations

Manifestation Determination

Decision-Making Guidelines

Alternative Manifestation Determination

Overview of the Individual Educational Program (IEP)

            Special Education Process Under IDEA

Writing the IEP

            Special Factors to Consider

            Placement Decision

            Distributing the Written IEP

            Implementation of the IEP

            Reviewing and Revising the IEP

            Parental Disagreement with the IEP

OSEP Monitoring

Summary

Discussion Questions

 

Part IV: Managing Behavior Problems in the Classroom

 

Chapter 10: Establishing an Effective Classroom Environment

Overview

Case History   

The Physical  Environment of the Classroom

            Seating Arrangement

            Class Size

            Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

Effective Teachers

Transitions

Type of Instruction

            Direct Instruction

            Small Group Instruction

Communication

Classroom Rules

Conflicts in the Classroom

Peer Mediation

                 Preventing and Reducing Aggression Through Mediation

                 Training of Peer Mediators

Homework Policy

Physical or Corporal Punishment

Accommodations and the 504 Plan

            The Fairness Issue

            Dealing With the Fairness Issue

            Timed Tests

Summary

Discussion Questions

 

Chapter 11: Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

Overview

Case History

Orientation

Reinforcement Basics

          Positive vs. Negative Reinforcement

            Comment on Reinforcers

            Type of Reinforcers

            Vary the Types of Reinforcers

            Classroom Reinforcement

Behavior Change

            Developing New Behaviors

            The Token Economy Point System

            Comment on Token Point System for Ages 6-8

            Alternatives to Punishment

Positive versus Negative Stimulus Events

Writing Instrumental Behavior Plans

Behavior Momentum

            Implementation of Behavioral Momentum

Positive Response Program

            Positive Behavioral Orientation

Contingency Contracting

            Contract Goals

            Defining Goals

            Practicing with a Short Contract

            Contract Considerations

Generalization

            Response Generalization

            Teaching for Generalization

            Stimulus Generalization

Direct Instruction of Expectations and Routines

The Use of Punishment

            Ignoring Behaviors

Monitoring Problem Behavior

            Behavior Should Be Monitored

            Specific Behavior Selected to Change

            Record Selected Behavior

Time-Out Procedure for Misbehavior

            Listing Behaviors for Time-Out

            Developing a Time-Out Plan

            Time-Out at Home and At School

            Problems with Time-Out

            Basic Time-Out Principles

            Time-Out in the Classroom

Overcorrection

            Restitutional Overcorrection

            Positive Practice Overcorrection

Writing a Behavior Penalty Plan

            Using Response-Cost and Behavior Penalty

 

Chapter 12: Specific Proactive Behavioral Interventions for Problematic Behaviors

Overview

Case History

Aggression

            Defiance and Verbal Aggression

            Hostile-Aggressive Behavior

            Physical Restraint

            Passive-Aggressive Behavior

Social Skill Problems

            Sharing

            Cooperation Problems

Inattention

            Visual Attention

            On-Task Behavior

Following Instructions

Self Monitoring

Impulsivity

Non-Compliance

Inappropriate Verbalizations

Case Study: Summary of FBS and BIP Procedures

Summary

Discussion Questions

 

Chapter 13: Teaching Students with Behavior Disorders

Overview

Case History

No Child Left Behind

Scientifically-Based Instruction

            The Challenge

            Scientifically-Based Research (SBR)

            A New Vocabulary for SBR

Instructional Strategies that Work

Implementing Evidence-Based Practices in Schools

            Accountability

            Scaling Up

Essential Organizational Needs for Putting EBP in Schools

            Comprehensive Meta-Analysis- Need I

            Guidelines and Systematic Reviews- Need II

            Research Infrastructure – Need III

            Curriculum-Based Assessment

Using Effective Practices to Educate EBD Students

            Opportunities To Respond

Academic Instruction

            Direct Instruction

            Precision Teaching

Reducing Problem Behaviors During Academic Management

The Morningside Model

Summary

Discussion Questions

 

Part V: School-Wide Management and Promising Directions

 

Chapter 14:  Developing a School-Wide Behavioral Program

Overview

Case History

Punitive Disciplinary Strategies: Zero-Tolerance

Positive Disciplinary Strategies

Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports in Schools

Discipline and Development Phases

School-Wide Behavioral Programs

Individual Program Support

Resilience Against Violence

Avoiding a Negative Behavioral Orientation

            Corporal Punishment

            Effective Discipline

Improving School and Classroom Environments

Understanding the Social Needs of Youth

            Alternatives to Discipline and Punishment

Teaching a Social Curriculum

Current School Discipline Practices

            Applying Discipline Fairly

            Nondiscrimination Procedure

            Special Education Students

Effectiveness of Current Discipline Practices

            Improved Student Behavior

            Alternatives to Disciplinary Removal

            Litigation Issues

A Description of a School-Wide Behavioral Program

            A Systems Approach

            Steps in Developing SW-PBS

Primary Prevention (Intervention)

            Implementation of Primary Prevention (Intervention)

            Office Discipline Referrals

Secondary Prevention (Intervention)

Tertiary Prevention (Intervention)

            Implementation of Tertiary Interventions (Preventions)

            Effectiveness of the Behavioral Intervention Plan

            Crisis Management

Developmental Considerations for Implementing SW-PBS

History and Development of SW-PBS

            The PREPARE Model

            The BEST Model

            The PAR Model

            The ACHIEVE Model

School-Wide Information System (SWIS) Program

The Wraparound Process

            Background and Need

            Defining and Describing Wraparound

            Wraparound in Schools

            Wraparound Special Education and IEP

            School Features that Support Wraparound

            Wraparound Process Features within SW-PBS

            Decision Making on Academic and Behavioral Issues

Summary

Discussion Questions

 

Chapter 15: Partnerships

Overview

A Historical Emphasis on Families

A Program of Partnership

            Developing an Action Plan

            Types of Parents

Parent Involvement with School

            Parents and Student Achievement

            Parents and Student Attitudes and Behavior

            Parents and School Rules

            Family Involvement in Children’s Learning

Levels of Parent Involvement

            Level I: Assessment

            Level II: Intervention

        Level III: Transition and Follow-Up

Parent Education

Relationship-Focused Early Intervention

Sibling Involvement

Sibling’s Areas of Concern

            Overidentification

            Embarrassment

            Guilt

            Shame

            Isolation

            Resentment

            Increased Responsibilities

            Pressure to Achieve

Sibshops Program

School – Family – Community Partnerships

            Preparation of Teachers and Family Involvement

The Impact of Teacher Training

Summary

Discussion Questions

 

Chapter 16: Future Directions with E/BD Students

Overview

Case History

Early Intervention

Comprehensive Behavioral Programs

Extensive Support Network

            School-Wide Behavioral Programs

            Emphasis on Positive Behavioral Programs

Assessment

            School-Wide Assessment

            Individual Assessment

Concluding Thoughts

            Teacher Education and Student Diversity

            Future Directions on The Wraparound Process

            The Future of Partnership Programs

            Prevention of Behavior Disorders

            Family Support and Integrated Services

            Researched Intervention for Behavior Problems

Summary

Discussion Questions

Appendices

Resources

References

Name Index

Subject Index

 

 

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