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Understanding English Grammar, 9th Edition

By Martha J. Kolln, Robert W. Funk

Published by Longman

Published Date: Sep 19, 2011

Description

This market-leading text for grammar courses is a comprehensive description of sentence structure that encourages students to recognize and use their innate language expertise as they study the systematic nature of sentence grammar.

A practical blend of the most useful elements of both traditional and new linguistic grammar, the text emphasizes whole structures, most specifically the ten basic sentence patterns introduced in Chapter 3. Two key features separate this book from others: its clear organization and its user-friendly, accessible language. Both students and teachers appreciate the self-teaching quality that incremental exercises provide throughout the chapters, with answers at the end of the book.

Table of Contents

 

All chapters have Chapter Previews.

Preface    

 

Part I

Introduction    

 

 1.         The Study of Grammar: An Overview    

English: A World Language

Three Definitions of Grammar    

Traditional School Grammar

Modern Linguistics    

Structural Grammar    

Transformational Grammar    

The Issue of Correctness    

Language Variety    

Language Change    

Language in the Classroom    

Key Terms    

Further Reading    

 

Part II: The Grammar of Basic Sentences

All chapters in Part II have Key Terms, Sentences for Practice, Questions for Discussion, and Classroom Applications

 

2.       Words and Phrases 

Form Classes

Nouns and Verbs

The Noun Phrase

The Verb Phrase

NP + VP = S

Adjectives and Adverbs

Prepositional Phrases

The Structure Classes

 

3.         Sentence Patterns

Subjects and Predicates

The Sentence Slots    

The Be Patterns    

The Linking Verb Patterns    

The Optional Slots    

The Intransitive Verb Pattern    

        Exceptions to the Intransitive Pattern    

        Intransitive Phrasal Verbs    

The Transitive Verb Patterns    

        Transitive Phrasal Verbs    

        The Indirect Object Pattern    

        The Object Complement Patterns    

Compound Structures    

Exceptions to the Ten Sentence Patterns    

Sentence Types

Interrogative Sentences (Questions)

Imperative Sentences (Commands)  

Exclamatory Sentences  

Punctuation and the Sentence Patterns    

Diagramming the Sentence Patterns    

Notes on the Diagrams    

        The Main Line    

        The Noun Phrase    

        The Verb Phrase     

        The Prepositional Phrase    

        Compound Structures    

        Punctuation    

 

4.         Expanding the Main Verb

The Five Verb Forms    

         The Irregular Be

Auxiliary–Verb Combinations    

The Modal Auxiliaries    

The “Future Tense” 

The Subjunctive Mood    

Tense and Aspect        

Using the Verb Forms   

Exceptions to the Verb=Expansion Rule    

The Stand-In Auxiliary Do    

The Verb System of African American Vernacular English    

 

5.       Changing Sentence Focus

The Passive Voice

            The Passive Get

            The Transitive-Passive Relationship

            Patterns VIII to X in Passive Voice

            Changing Passive Voice to Active Voice

The Passive Voice in Prose

            Other Passive Purposes

The There Transformation

Cleft Sentences

 

Part III:            Expanding the Sentence

All chapters in Part III have Key Terms, Sentences for Practice, Questions for Discussion, and Classroom Applications

 

Form and Function

 

6.         Modifiers of the Verb: Adverbials

The Moveable Adverbials

Adverbs    

Prepositional Phrases    

Nouns and Noun Phrases     

Verb Phrases    

        Dangling Infinitives

        Participles as Adverbials    

Clauses    

Punctuation of Adverbials    

 

7.         Modifers of the Noun: Adjectivals

The Determiner    

Adjectives and Nouns 

            Prenoun participles   

Prepositional Phrases    

Relative Clauses    

Participial Phrases    

        Passive Participles    

        Movable Participles    

        The Participle as Object Complement    

        Participles as Adjectivals or Adverbials    

Punctuation of Clauses and Participles    

Multiple Modifiers    

Other Postnoun Modifiers    

        Infinitives    

        Noun Phrases    

        Adjectives    

        Adverbs    

 

 

8.         The Noun Phrase Functions: Nominals

The Nominal Slots    

Appositives    

        Punctuation of Appositives    

Noun Phrase Substitutes    

Gerunds    

        The Pattern of the Gerund    

        The Subject of the Gerund    

        Dangling Gerunds    

Infinitives    

        The Subject of the Infinitive    

Nominal Clauses    

        The Expletive That    

        Interrogatives    

        Yes/No Interrogatives    

        Punctuation of Nominal Clauses    

Nominals as Delayed Subjects    

 

9.         Sentence Modifiers

Nouns of Direct Address: The Vocatives    

Interjections    

Subordinate Clauses    

        Punctuation of Subordinate Clauses     

        Elliptical Clauses    

Absolute Phrases    

Appositives    

Relative Clauses    

 

 

10.       Coordination

Coordination within the Sentence    

        Punctuation    

        Elliptical Coordinate Structures    

        Subject–Verb Agreement    

        Parallel Structure    

Coordinating Complete Sentences    

        Conjunctions    

        Semicolons    

        Colons    

        Diagramming the Compound Sentence    

 

Part IV:            Words and Word Classes

All chapters in Part IV have Key Terms, Questions for Discussion, and Classroom Applications

 

11.       Morphemes 

Bases and Affixes    

Bound and Free Morphemes    

Derivational and Inflectional Morphemes    

Allomorphs    

Homonyms    

Compound Words    

 

12.       The Form Classes

Nouns    

        Noun Derivational Suffixes    

        Noun Inflectional Suffixes    

        The Meaning of the Possessive Case    

        Irregular Plural Inflections    

        Plural-Only Forms    

        Collective Nouns    

        Semantic Features of Nouns    

Verbs    

        Verb Derivational Affixes    

        Verb Inflectional Suffixes    

Adjectives    

        Adjective Derivational Suffixes    

        Adjective Inflectional Suffixes    

        Subclasses of Adjectives    

Adverbs    

        Adverb Derivational Suffixes    

        Adverb Inflectional Suffixes    

 

13.       The Structure Classes

Determiners    

        The Expanded Determiner    

Auxiliaries    

Qualifiers    

Prepositions    

        Simple Prepositions    

        Phrasal Prepositions    

Conjunctions    

        Coordinating Conjunctions    

        Correlative Conjunctions    

        Conjunctive Adverbs (Adverbial Conjunctions)    

        Subordinating Conjunctions    

Interrogatives    

Expletives    

        There    

        That    

        Or    

        As    

        If and Whether (or not)    

Particles     

 

14.       Pronouns

Personal Pronouns    

        Case    

        The Missing Pronoun   

Reflexive Pronouns    

Intensive Pronouns    

Reciprocal Pronouns    

Demonstrative Pronouns    

Relative Pronouns    

Interrogative Pronouns    

Indefinite Pronouns    

 

Part V:             Grammar for Writers

 

15.       Rhetorical Grammar

Sentence Patterns    

        Basic Sentences    

        Cohesion    

Sentence Rhythm    

        End Focus    

Focusing Tools

Choosing Verbs    

        The Overuse of Be   

        The Linking Be and Metaphor    

        The Passive Voice    

The Abstract Subject   

          Who Is Doing What? 

The Shifting Adverbials    

        The Adverbial Clause    

        The Adverbs of Emphasis    

        The Common Only    

Metadiscourse    

Style    

        Word Order Variation    

        Ellipsis    

        The Coordinate Series    

        The Introductory Appositive Series    

        The Deliberate Sentence Fragment    

        Repetition    

Antithesis

Using Gender Appropriately    

Key Terms    

 

16.       Purposeful Punctuation

Making Connections    

        Compounding Sentences    

        Compounding Structures within Sentences    

        Connecting More Than Two Parts: The Series    

Separating Prenoun Modifiers    

Identifying Essential and Nonessential

Structures    

Signaling Sentence Openers    

Signaling Emphasis    

Using Apostrophes for Contraction and Possessive Case    

 

Part VI

 

Glossary of Grammatical Terms    

 

Appendix on Sentence Diagramming

 

Answers to the Exercises    

 

Index    

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