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Understanding Research and Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders: A Primer for Students and Practitioners, CourseSmart eTextbook

By William O. Haynes, Carole E. Johnson

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Oct 23, 2008

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Description

Understanding Research and Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders is an engaging, student-friendly text that explores the connection between common communication science research methods and clinical practice. Covering both the conceptual and the quantitative aspects of research methods, evidence-based practice, experimental design, and statistics, this book both elucidates various models of research and practice and explains how these models are important to the greater field of communication science.

 

While some students and practitioners find many books on research, evidence-based practice, and statistical concepts to be intimidating, abstract, and dry, Understanding Research and Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders strives to emphasize not only the ideas surrounding evidence-based practice but also how its principles can be applied in clinical practice. The text also includes a number of helpful study aides such as learning objectives, learning activities, and a glossary, all of which help shed considerable light on these challenging and sometimes daunting subjects. 

Table of Contents

Section I:  Introduction to Research in Communication Disorders

 

Chapter 1:  The Importance of Research in Communication Sciences and Disorders

 

·        Learning Objectives

·        Preconceived notions

·        The role of research in making a profession(al) credible

·        Three examples of professional credibility

·        Our professional literature and the information base

·        The scientific method and clinical work:  The notion of clinician-researcher

·        Common research misconceptions

·        Parallels in clinical and research skills:  Diagnosis

·        Parallels in clinical and research skills:  Treatment

·        The benefits of becoming a clinician-researcher

·        Chapter Summary

·        Learning Activities

 

Section II:  The Nature of Scientific Inquiry and Essentials of Experimental Control 

 

Chapter 2:  Scientific Principles and Methods Used by Researchers

 

·        Learning Objectives

·        Sinister stereotypes

·        Ways of knowing about the world

·        Characteristics of science

·        The Systematic Nature of Science: Scientific method

o       Experimental Control

o       The Public Nature of Science

o       Replication in Science

o       The Empirical Nature of Science

o       Probabilistic Knowledge

·        Ethical issues in research

·        Junk science, pseudoscience and quackery

·        Chapter Summary

·        Learning Activities

 

   Chapter 3:  Crafting Scientific and Answerable Questions

 

·        Learning Objectives

·        Theories, problems, hypotheses and questions

·        Deductive and inductive approaches to generating questions

·        Independent and dependent variables:  Critical elements

·        A final word on independent variables

·        Answerability

·        Selecting dependent variables

o       Validity

o       Reliability

o       Operational definitions

·        Evaluating research by asking questions about the questions

·        Chapter Summary

·        Learning Activities

 

Chapter 4:  Controlling Threats and Confounding Variables Through Experimental Design

 

·        Learning Objectives

·        Threats and experimental design

·        Introduction to our design notation:  Between and within subjects experimental designs

·        Internal validity

·        Threats to internal validity

o       The Maturation Threat

o       The History Threat

o       The Threat of Testing Effects

o       The Statistical Regression Threat

o       The Experimenter/Participant Bias Threat

§         Experimenter’s General Demeanor and Communication

§         Experimenter Gathering or Scoring of Experimental Data

§         The Hawthorne Effect

§         Control Groups and the Placebo Effect

o       The Instrumentation Threat

§         Common Steps in Using Instrumentation for Research

·        Detection

·        Amplification

·        Modification/Filtering

·        Transmission

·        Readout/Display

·        Interpretation

§         Generic Sources of Error Related to Instrumentation

·        Quality of the Instrument

·        Condition of the Instrument

·        Calibration

·        Interpretive Skill

o       The Participant Selection Threat

§         Establish Selection Criteria

§         Random Assignment

§         Matching

§         Including Extraneous Variable in Your Design and Using Statistics as Control

§         Group Summary Information

o       The Mortality Threat

·        External validity

·        Threats to external validity

o       Participant Selection Bias

o       Experimental Arrangements

o       Reactive Testing

o       Multiple Treatment Interactions

·        The linkage between internal and external validity

·        The art and science of compromise

·        Chapter Summary

·        Learning Activities

 

Section III:  Design and Analysis of Research on Groups and Single Cases

 

Chapter 5:  Levels of Measurement and Distribution of Scores

 

·        Learning Objectives

·        Levels of Measurement:  What kind of data does your dependent variable represent?

o       Nominal Data

o       Ordinal Data

o       Interval Data

o       Ratio Data

·        The shape of the distribution and it’s importance in research

·        Summary Statistics:  Central Tendency

o       The Mode

o       The Median

o       The Mean

·        Relationships of Measures of Central Tendency in Normal and Abnormal Distributions

·        Type of Data and its Effect on Selection of Central Tendency Measures

·        Summary Statistics:  Variability

o       Range

o       The Variance

o       The Standard Deviation

·        Assumptions of Parametric and Non-Parametric Statistics

o       Type of Data

o       Number of Participants

o       Normal Distribution

o       Homogeneity of Variance

o       Differing Views of Assumptions

·        Transforming Data

·        Chapter Summary

·        Learning Activities

       

Chapter 6:  An Introduction to Hypothesis Testing with Inferential Statistics

 

·        Learning Objectives

·        Probability and level of confidence

·        The process of hypothesis testing

o      Stating the Null and Alternative Hypotheses

o      Set the Alpha Level or Significance level for use in Evaluating Hypotheses

o      Gather Data from a Research Sample

o      Compute a Test Statistic on Sample Data to Obtain a Calculated Value

o      Compare Calculated Value of Test Statistic to the Critical Value to Determine Statistical Significance

o      Making a Decision about Hypotheses

·        Type I and Type II errors

·        Statistical power

·        Statistical versus practical significance

·        Effect size and practical significance

·        The null hypothesis revisited

·        Chapter Summary

·        Learning Activities

 

Chapter 7:  Common Statistical Analyses for Finding Differences Among Two or More Groups of Conditions on One Independent Variable

 

·        Learning Objectives

·        Conceptual and mechanical aspects of statistical analysis

·        Review of basic between subjects designs

·        Putting in the summary statistics

·        Independent t-test:  A parametric statistic for comparing two groups (between subjects)

·        One factor analysis of variance (ANOVA1) between subjects:  A parametric statistic for comparing more than two independent groups

·        Post hoc testing

·        Commonly used non-parametric statistics for finding differences between two or more independent groups (between subjects).

·    Correlated t-test:  A parametric statistic for comparing two related groups or                         conditions (within subjects)

·    One factor analysis of variance (ANOVA1) within subjects:  A parametric statistic for comparing more than two conditions

·        Commonly used non-parametric statistics for finding differences among more than two conditions (within subjects).

·       Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA):  A parametric statistic for finding differences among more than two groups or conditions on multiple dependent variables (between and within subjects)

·        Chapter Summary

·        Learning Activities

 

Chapter 8:  Studies that analyze differences in groups using factorial designs with more than one independent variable:  Between, Within and Mixed

 

·        Learning Objectives

·        Two Factor ANOVA (Between subjects)

·        Two Factor ANOVA (Within subjects)

·        Three Factor ANOVA (Between subjects)

·        Three Factor ANOVA (Within subjects)

·        Two Factor Mixed ANOVA with Repeated measures on one factor

·        Three Factor Mixed ANOVA with Repeated measures on one factor

·        Three Factor Mixed ANOVA with Repeated measures on two factors

·        Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)

·        Factorial Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA)

·        Chapter Summary

·        Learning Activities

 

Chapter 9:  Studies That Measure Relationships Among Variables or Attempt Prediction

 

·        Learning Objectives

·        The Nature of Relationships

o       Direction of a Relationship

o       Strength of a Relationship

o       Significance of a Relationship

o       Importance of the Relationship and Accounting for Variance

·        Nonparametric Correlation Procedures

·        Bivariate Regression Analysis: Prediction with a Single Independent and Dependent Variable

·        Multivariate Procedures for Studying Relationships and Prediction:  A Caveat

o       Multiple Regression Analysis

o       Canonical Correlation Analysis

o       Discriminant Analysis

o       Factor Analysis

·        Chapter Summary

·        Learning Activities

 

Chapter 10:  Single-subject Experimental Designs in Clinical Fields

 

  • Learning Objectives
  • Introduction
  • Characteristics of Single-subject Design Research
    • Descriptive Designs
    • Other Assessments
  • Scientific Methodology in Single-subject Design Research
  • Advantages and Disadvantages to Single-subject Design Research versus Group-design Research
  • Statistical Procedures in Single-subject Design Research
  • Critiquing Single-subject Design Research
  • Chapter Summary
  • Learning Activities
  • Review Exercises
  • Appendix 12-A: Critiquing Single-subject Design Research

 

Section IV:  Evidence-Based Practice and Applied Clinical Research

 

Chapter 11: Introduction to Evidence-based Practice

 

  • Introduction
  • Learning Objectives
  • Evidence-based Practice in Communication Sciences and Disorders
    • What is evidence-based practice?
    • What skills are required for evidence-based practice?
  • Chapter Summary

 

Chapter 12: Levels of Evidence

 

  • Introduction
  • Learning Objectives
  • Levels of Evidence
    • What criteria are used in establishing hierarchies of rigor?
    • What hierarchies are appropriate for Communication Sciences and Disorders?
  • Levels of Evidence for Interventional Research
    • Level I: Meta-analysis of Multiple, Well-designed Clinical Studies
      • What are systematic reviews and meta-analyses?
      • What does a summary of a systematic review look like?
      • What are the major components of a systematic review?
      • What are characteristics of good systematic reviews?
    • Level II: Well-designed Randomized Clinical Trials
      • What is the role of clinical trials in healthcare?
      • How relevant are clinical trials to Communication Sciences and Disorders?
      • What are the characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of well-designed clinical trials?
    • Level III: Non-randomized Intervention Studies
    • Level IV: Cohort Studies, Case-control Studies, and Cross-sectional Surveys
      • Cohort Studies
      • Case-control Studies
      • Cross-sectional Surveys
    • Level V: Case Studies
    • Level VI: Expert Opinion
  • General Characteristics and Rigor of Diagnostic Studies
    • Assessment of Test Accuracy
    • Some Points of Discussion about Levels of Evidence for Diagnostic Studies
  • Chapter Summary
  • Learning Activities
  • Review Exercises

 

 

 

Chapter 13:  Framing the Clinical Question and Searching for the Evidence

 

  • Introduction
  • Learning Objectives
  • A Rubric for Framing Clinical Questions
    • Types of Clinical Questions
    • Defining the Population, Intervention, Alternative Treatment, and Outcome
  • Formulating Clinical and/or Research Questions
  • Searching for the Evidence
    • Sources of Evidence in Communication Sciences and Disorders
    • Search Strategies
    • Documenting Search Strategies
    • A Multi-layered Selection Strategy
  • Chapter Summary
  • Learning Activities
  • Review Exercises
  • Appendix 13-A: PICO Worksheet for Evidence-based Practice
  • Appendix 13-B: Documentation of an Electronic Database Search
  • Appendix 13-C: Report of Title Review
  • Appendix 13-D: Report of Abstract and/or Article Review

 

 

 

Chapter 14: Evaluating the Evidence

 

  • Introduction
  • Learning Objectives
  • Common Weaknesses in Communication Sciences and Disorders Research
  • Critiquing Studies for Evidence-based Practice
    • Systematic Reviews
    • Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trials
    • Cohort Studies
    • Case-control Studies
    • Diagnostic Studies
  • Rating of the Evidence and Grading of the Recommendations
  • Chapter Summary
  • Learning Activities
  • Review Exercises
  • Appendix 15-A: Checklist for Evaluating Systematic Reviews
  • Appendix 15-B: Checklist for Evaluating Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trials
  • Appendix 15-C: Checklist for Evaluating Cohort Studies
  • Appendix 15-D: Checklist for Evaluating Case-control Studies
  • Appendix 15-E:  Checklist for Evaluating Diagnostic Studies

 

 

 

 

Chapter 15: Evidence-based Practice: Blending Patient Preferences, Scientific Evidence, and Clinical Expertise

 

  • Introduction
  • Learning Objectives
  • Patient Preferences
  • Scientific Evidence
    • Developing a Clinical/ Research Question
    • Searching for the Evidence
    • Critical Appraisal of the Evidence
  • Clinical Expertise
    • Conference on Guideline Standards
    • Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation Collaboration
    • Clinical Practice Guidelines in Communication Sciences and Disorders
  • Chapter Summary
  • Learning Activities
  • Review Exercises

 

 

Section V:  Putting Knowledge into Practice:  Evaluating Research, Designing your own Study and Obtaining Resources

 

 

Chapter 16:  Producing Research as a Student or Practitioner

 

  • Learning Objectives
  • Theses, Capstone Projects and Dissertations
    • The Beginning
      • Defining a General Area of Research Interest
      • The Director
      • The Specific Research Idea
      • The Committee
      • Format and Submission Requirements
      • The Literature Review
      • The Justification
      • Crafting Answerable Questions
      • Designing the Method
      • The Prospectus
      • The Prospectus Meeting
    • The Midpoint
      • The IRB
      • Finding Participants
      • Informed Consent
      • Gathering Data
      • Organization in Gathering and Safeguarding Data
      • Data Analysis
    • The End Game
      • Writing the Results
      • Writing the Discussion
      • Limitations of the study and Suggestions for Future Research
      • The Defense
      • Writing up a Presentation and Journal Article
      • Another Perspective on Ethics for Students and Practitioners
  • Collaborative Research by Practitioners
    • Finding a Collaborator
    • Defining Roles and Contributions
    • The Idea and Research Questions
    • Designing the Study and Defining Roles
    • Review of the Literature
    • The IRB Protocol
    • Obtaining Equipment/Instrumentation
    • Finding Participants
    • Gathering Data
    • Analyzing Data
    • Writing up a Presentation and Journal Article
  • Chapter Summary
  • Learning Activities

 

 

 

Chapter 17: Grantsmanship: Funding Research Endeavors

 

  • Introduction
  • Learning Objectives
  • Funding Sources in Communication Sciences and Disorders
    • Four Types of Funding
    • Levels of Investigative Experience
    • Specific Granting Mechanisms Appropriate for Various Levels of Investigative Experience
      • Undergraduate Students
      • Graduate Students
      • New Investigators
      • Independent Investigators
  • Preparing a Grant Application
  • Grant Review Process
  • Chapter Summary
  • Learning Activities
  • Review Exercises

 

Glossary

 

References

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Understanding Research and Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders: A Primer for Students and Practitioners, CourseSmart eTextbook
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$64.99 | ISBN-13: 978-0-13-504211-3