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Voice over IP Fundamentals, CourseSmart eTextbook, 2nd Edition

By Jonathan Davidson, James F. Peters, Manoj Bhatia, Satish Kalidindi, Sudipto Mukherjee

Published by Cisco Press

Published Date: Jul 27, 2006

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Description

A systematic approach to understanding the basics of voice over IP

 

  • Understand the basics of enterprise and public telephony networking, IP networking, and how voice is transported over IP networks
  • Learn the various caveats of converging voice and data networks
  • Examine the basic VoIP signaling protocols (H.323, MGCP/H.248, SIP) and primary legacy voice signaling protocols (ISDN, C7/SS7)
  • Explore how VoIP can run the same applications as the existing telephony system but in a more cost-efficient and scalable manner
  • Delve into such VoIP topics as jitter, latency, packet loss, codecs, QoS tools, and security

     

    Voice over IP (VoIP) has become an important factor in network communications, promising lower operational costs, greater flexibility, and a variety of enhanced applications. To help you understand VoIP networks, Voice over IP Fundamentals provides a thorough introduction to the basics of VoIP.

     

    Voice over IP Fundamentals explains how a basic IP telephony infrastructure is built and works today, major concepts concerning voice and data networking, and transmission of voice over data networks. You’ll learn how voice is signaled through legacy telephone networks, how IP signaling protocols are used to interoperate with current telephony systems, and how to ensure good voice quality using quality of service (QoS).

     

    Even though Voice over IP Fundamentals is written for anyone seeking to understand how to use IP to transport voice, its target audience comprises both voice and data networking professionals. In the past, professionals working in voice and data networking did not have to understand each other’s roles. However, in this world of time-division multiplexing (TDM) and IP convergence, it is important to understand how these technologies work together. Voice over IP Fundamentals explains all the details so that voice experts can understand data networking and data experts can understand voice networking.

     

    The second edition of this best-selling book includes new chapters on the importance of billing and mediation in a VoIP network, security, and the common types of threats inherent when packet voice environments, public switched telephone networks (PSTN), and VoIP interoperate. It also explains enterprise and service-provider applications and services. 

  • Table of Contents

    Introduction

    Part I PSTN

    Chapter 1 Overview of the PSTN and Comparisons to Voice over IP

      The Beginning of the PSTN

      Understanding PSTN Basics

         Analog and Digital Signaling

         Digital Voice Signals

         Local Loops, Trunks, and Interswitch Communication

        PSTN Signaling

      PSTN Services and Applications

         PSTN Numbering Plans

      Drivers Behind the Convergence Between Voice and Data Networking

         Drawbacks to the PSTN

      Packet Telephony Network Drivers

         Standards-Based Packet Infrastructure Layer

         Open Call-Control Layer

         VoIP Call-Control Protocols

         Open Service Application Layer

      New PSTN Network Infrastructure Model

      Summary

    Chapter 2 Enterprise Telephony Today

      Similarities Between PSTN and ET

      Differences Between PSTN and ET

         Signaling Treatment

         Advanced Features

      Common ET and PSTN Interworking

         ET Networks Provided by PSTN

         Private ET Networks

      Summary

    Chapter 3 Basic Telephony Signaling

      Signaling Overview

         Analog and Digital Signaling

         Direct Current Signalin8

         In-Band and Out-of-Band Signaling

         Loop-Start and Ground-Start Signaling

         CAS and CCS

      E&M Signaling

         Type I

         Type II

         Type III

         Type IV

         Type V

      CAS

         Bell System MF Signaling

         CCITT No. 5 Signaling

         R1

         R2

      ISDN

         ISDN Service5

         ISDN Access Interface6

         ISDN L2 and L3 Protocols

         Basic ISDN Call

      QSIG

         QSIG Service4

         QSIG Architecture and Reference Points

         QSIG Protocol Stac5

         QSIG Basic Call Setup and Teardown Example

      DPNSS

      Summary

    Chapter 4 Signaling System 7

      SS7 Network Architecture

         Signaling Elements

         Signaling Links

      SS7 Protocol Overview

         Physical Layer—MTP L1

         Data Layer—MTP L2

         Network Layer—MTP3

         SCCP

         TUP

         ISUP

         TCAP

      SS7 Examples

         Basic Call Setup and Teardown Example

         800 Database Query Example

      List of SS7 Specifications

      Summary

    Chapter 5 PSTN Services

      Plain Old Telephone Service

         Custom Calling Features

         CLASS Features

         Voice Mail

      Business Services

         Virtual Private Voice Networks

         Centrex Services

         Call Center Services

      Service Provider Services

         Database Service

         Operator Services

      Summary

    Part II Voice over IP Technology

    Chapter 6 IP Tutorial

      OSI Reference Model

         The Application Layer

         The Presentation Layer

         The Session Layer

         The Transport Layer

         The Network Layer

         The Data Link Layer

         The Physical Layer

      Internet Protocol

      Data Link Layer Addresses

      IP Addressing

      Routing Protocols

         Distance-Vector Routing

         Link-State Routing

         BGP

         IS-IS

         OSPF

         IGRP

      EIGRP

         RIP

      IP Transport Mechanisms

         TCP

         UDP

      Summary

      References

    Chapter 7 VoIP: An In-Depth Analysis

      Delay/Latency

         Propagation Delay

         Handling Delay

         Queuing Delay

      Jitter

      Pulse Code Modulation

         What Is PCM?

         A Sampling Example for Satellite Networks

      Voice Compression

         Voice Coding Standards

         Mean Opinion Score

         Perceptual Speech Quality Measurement

      Echo

      Packet Loss

      Voice Activity Detection

      Digital-to-Analog Conversion

      Tandem Encoding

      Transport Protocols

         RTP

         Reliable User Data Protocol

      Dial-Plan Design

      End Office Switch Call-Flow Versus IP Phone Call

      Summary

      References

    Chapter 8 Quality of Service

      QoS Network Toolkit

      Edge Functions

         Bandwidth Limitations

         cRTP

         Queuing

         Packet Classification

      Traffic Policing

         Traffic Shaping

         Edge QoS Wrap-Up

      Backbone Networks

         High-Speed Transport

         Congestion Avoidance

         Backbone QoS Wrap-Up

      Rules of Thumb for QoS

      Cisco Labs’ QoS Testing

      Summary

    Chapter 9 Billing and Mediation Services

      Billing Basics

         Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA)

         RADIUS

         Vendor-Specific Attributes (VSA)

         Billing Formats

      Case Study: Cisco SIP Proxy Server and Billing

         RADIUS Server Accounting

      Challenges for VoIP Networks

      Mediation Services

      Summary

    Chapter 10 Voice Security

      Security Requirements

      Security Technologies

         Shared-Key Approaches

         Public-Key Cryptography

      Protecting Voice Devices

         Disabling Unused Ports/Services

         HIPS

      Protecting IP Network Infrastructure

         Segmentation

         Traffic Policing

         802.1x Device Authentication

         Layer 2 Tools

         NIPS

         Layer 3 Tools

      Security Planning and Policies

         Transitive Trust

         VoIP Protocol-Specific Issues

         Complexity Tradeoffs

         NAT/Firewall Traversal

         Password and Access Control

      Summary

    Part III IP Signaling Protocols

    Chapter 11 H.323

      H.323 Elements

         Terminal

         Gateway

         Gatekeeper

         The MCU and Elements

         H.323 Proxy Server

      H.323 Protocol Suite

         RAS Signaling

         Call Control Signaling (H.225)

         Media Control and Transport (H.245 and RTP/RTCP)

      H.323 Call-Flows

      Summary

    Chapter 12 SIP

      SIP Overview

         Functionality That SIP Provides

         SIP Network Elements

         Interaction with Other IETF Protocols

         Message Flow in SIP Network

      SIP Message Building Blocks

         SIP Addressing

         SIP Messages

         SIP Transactions and Dialog

         Transport Layer Protocols for SIP Signaling

      Basic Operation of SIP

         Proxy Server Example

         Redirect Server Example

         B2BUA Server Example

      SIP Procedures for Registration and Routing

         User Agent Discovering SIP Servers in a Network

         SIP Registration and User Mobility

         SIP Message Routing

         Routing of Subsequent Requests Within a SIP Dialog

         Signaling Forking at the Proxy

         Enhanced Proxy Routing

      SIP Extensions

         SIP Extension Negotiation Mechanism: Require, Supported, Allow Headers

         Caller and Callee Preferences

         SIP Event Notification Framework: Subscription and Notifications

         SUBSCRIBE and NOTIFY Methods

         Monitoring Registration State Using the Subscription-Notification Framework

         SIP REFER Request

         Presence and Instant Messaging Overview

         SIP Extensions for IM and Presence

      Summary

    Chapter 13 Gateway Control Protocols

      MGCP Overview

      MGCP Model

         Endpoints

         Connections

         Calls

      MGCP Commands and Messages

         CreateConnection (CRCX)

         ModifyConnection (MDCX)

         DeleteConnection (DLCX)

         NotificationRequest (RQNT)

         Notification (NTFY)

         AuditEndpoint (AUEP)

         AuditConnection (AUCX)

         RestartIn-Progress (RSIP)

         EndpointConfiguration (EPCF)

         MGCP Response Messages

      MGCP Call Flows

         Basic MGCP Call Flow

         Trunking GW-to-Trunking GW Call Flow

      Advanced MGCP Features

         Events and Event Packages

         Digit Maps

         Embedded Notification Requests

         Non-IP Bearer Networks

      H.248/MEGACO

      Summary

    Part IV VoIP Applications and Services

    Chapter 14 PSTN and VoIP Interworking

      Cisco Packet Telephony

      Packet Voice Network Overview

         Network Elements

         Residential Gateway

         Network Interfaces

      PGW2200 Architecture and Operations

         PGW2200-Supported Protocols

         Execution Environment

         North American Numbering Plan

      PGW2200 Implementation

         Application Check-Pointing

         MGC Node Manager

         Accounting

      PSTN Signaling Over IP

         SCTP

         IUA

      Changing Landscape of PSTN-IP Interworking

      Session Border Controller (SBC)

      Summary

    Chapter 15 Service Provider VoIP Applications and Services

      The Service Provider Dilemma

      Service Provider Applications and Benefits

      Service Provider VoIP Deployment: Vonage

         VoIP Operational Advantages

      Service Provider Case Study: Prepaid Calling Card

         BOWIE.net Multiservice Networks

      Session Border Control: Value Addition

      VoIP Peering: Top Priority for the Service Providers

      Service Provider VoIP and Consumer Fixed Mobile Convergence

      Summary

    Chapter 16 Enterprise Voice over IP Applications and Services

      Migrating to VoIP Architecture

      Enterprise Voice Applications and Benefits

      Advanced Enterprise Applications

         Web-Based Collaboration and Conference

         The Need for Presence Information

         Presence-Aware Services

      Wi-Fi–Enabled Phones

      Better Voice Quality Using Wideband Codecs

      Summary

     

    1587052571 TOC 7/6/2006

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