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Water Supply and Pollution Control, CourseSmart eTextbook, 8th Edition

By Warren Viessman, Jr., Mark J. Hammer, Elizabeth M. Perez, Paul A. Chadik

Published by Prentice Hall

Published Date: Jun 17, 2008

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Description

For upper-division undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in civil and environmental engineering.

 

The Eighth Edition of this bestselling text has been revised and modernized to meet the needs of today's environmental engineering students who will be engaged in the design and management of water and wastewater systems. It emphasizes the application of the scientific method to problems associated with the development, movement, and treatment of water and wastewater. Recognizing that all waters are potential sources of supply, the authors present treatment processes in the context of what they can do, rather than dividing them along clean water or waste water lines. An abundance of examples and homework problems amplify the concepts presented.

 

 

Table of Contents

Contents

Preface xvii

Chapter 1   Introduction    

1.1           A Historical Perspective    

1.2           A Current Global Issue    

1.3           A Look to the Future    

References    

Chapter 2   Water Resources Planning and Management    

2.1           Environmental Regulation and Protection    

2.2           Security of Water Resources Systems    

2.3           Watershed Management    

2.4           Integrated Watershed Management    

2.5           Role of Geographic Information Systems    

2.6           Conclusions    

Problems   

References    

Chapter 3   The Hydrologic Cycle and Natural Water Sources    

3.1           The Hydrologic Cycle    

The Water Budget    

3.2           Mathematics of Hydrology    

3.3           Water Quality    

3.4           Soil Moisture    

Groundwater    

3.5           An Introduction to Groundwater Quantity and Quality    

3.6           The Subsurface Distribution of Water    

3.7           Aquifers    

3.8           Safe Yield of an Aquifer    

3.9           Groundwater Flow    

3.10         Hydraulics of Wells    

3.11         Boundary Effects    

3.12         Regional Groundwater Systems    

3.13         Salt Water Intrusion    

3.14         Groundwater Recharge    

3.15         Concurrent Development of Groundwater and Surface Water Sources    

Surface Water    

3.16         An Introduction to Surface Water Quantity and Quality    

3.17         Surface Water Storage    

3.18         Reservoirs    

3.19         Losses from Storage    

3.20         Impacts of Climate Change on Global Hydrology    

Problems    

References    

Chapter 4   Alternative Sources of Water Supply    

4.1           Water Conservation    

4.2           Wastewater Reuse    

4.3           Stormwater Reuse    

4.4           Brackish and Saline Water Conversion    

4.5           Interbasin Transfers    

4.6           Other Relevant Technologies    

Problems   

References    

Chapter 5   Water Use Trends and Forecasting    

5.1           Water-Use Sectors    

5.2           Factors Affecting Water Use    

5.3           Water Use Trends    

5.4           Population    

5.5           Long-Term Water Use Forecasting    

Problems    

References    

Chapter 6   Conveying and Distributing Water    

Hydraulics    

6.1           Introduction to Hydraulics    

6.2           Uniform Flow    

6.3           Gradually Varied Flow and Surface Profiles    

6.4           Velocity    

Water Distribution Systems    

6.5           General Design Considerations    

6.6           Types of Distribution Systems    

6.7           Distribution System Components    

6.8           Distribution System Configutations    

Hydraulic Considerations    

6.8           Hydraulic Design    

Pressure Considerations    

6.9           General Design Sequence    

6.10         Distribution Reservoirs and Service Storage    

Pumping    

6.11         Pumping Head    

6.12         Power    

6.13         Cavitation    

6.14         System Head    

6.15         Pump Characteristics    

6.16         Pump Curves    

Problems    

References    

Chapter 7   Wastewater Collection and Stormwater Engineering    

Design of Sanitary Sewers    

7.1           House and Building Connections    

7.2           Collection Systems    

7.3           Intercepting Sewers    

7.4           Materials    

7.5           System Layout    

7.6           Hydraulic Design    

7.7           Protection Against Floodwaters    

7.8           Wastewater Pump Stations    

7.9           Inflow/Infiltration and Exfiltration    

Stormwater Management    

7.10         Rainfall    

7.11         Runoff    

7.12         Collection and Conveyance    

7.13         Storm Inlets    

7.14         Stable Channel Design    

7.15         Best Management Practices    

7.16         Detention Pond Design    

7.17         Retention Pond Design    

7.18         Sustainability and Low Impact Development    

7.19         Hydrologic and Hydraulic Modeling    

 

Problems    

References    

Chapter 8   Water Quality   

Microbiological Quality    

8.1           Waterborne Diseases    

8.2           Coliform Bacteria as Indicator Organisms    

8.3           Monitoring Drinking Water for Pathogens    

                Chemical Quality of Drinking Water    

8.4           Assessment of Chemical Quality    

8.5           Chemical Contaminants    

Quality Criteria for Surface Waters    

8.6           Water Quality Standards    

8.7           Pollution Effects on Aquatic Life    

8.8           Conventional Water Pollutants    

8.9           Toxic Water Pollutants    

Selected Pollution Parameters    

8.10         Total and Suspended Solids   

8.11         Biochemical and Chemical Oxygen Demands    

8.12         Coliform Bacteria    

Problems    

References    

Chapter 9   Systems for Treating Wastewater and Water    

Wastewater Treatment Systems    

9.1           Purpose of Wastewater Treatment    

9.2           Selection of Treatment Processes    

Water Treatment Systems    

9.3           Water Sources    

9.4           Selection of Water Treatment Processes    

9.5           Types of Water Treatment Systems        

9.6           Water-Processing Residuals    

Chapter 10   Physical Treatment Processes    

Flow-Measuring Devices    

10.1         Measurement of Water Flow    

10.2         Measurement of Wastewater Flow    

Screening Devices   

10.3         Water-Intake Screens   

10.4         Screens in Wastewater Treatment    

10.5         Shredding Devices    

Mixing and Flocculation    

10.6         Rapid Mixing    

10.7         Flocculation    

Sedimentation    

10.8         Fundamentals of Sedimentation    

10.9         Types of Clarifiers    

10.10       Sedimentation in Water Treatment   

10.11       Sedimentation in Wastewater Treatment    

10.12       Grit Chambers in Wastewater Treatment    

Filtration   

10.13       Gravity Granular-Media Filtration    

10.14       Description of a Typical Gravity Filter System    

10.15       Flow Control Through Gravity Filters    

10.16       Head Losses Through Filter Media    

10.17       Backwashing and Media Fluidization    

10.18       Pressure Filters    

10.19       Membrane Filtration   

Problems    

References    

Chapter 11   Chemical Treatment Processes    

Chemical Considerations    

11.1         Inorganic Chemicals and Compounds    

11.2         Chemical Equilibria      

11.3         Hydrogen Ion Concentration    

11.4         Alkalinity and pH Relationships    

11.5         Ways of Shifting Chemical Equilibria    

11.6         Chemical Kinetics    

Reactions in Continuous-Flow Systems — Real and Ideal Reactors   

11.7         Mass Balance Analysis  

11.8         Residence Time Distribution    

11.9         Ideal Reactors    

11.10       Real Reactors   

Coagulation    

11.11       Colloidal Dispersions    

11.12       Natural Organic Matter  

11.13       Coagulation Process  

11.14       Coagulants    

Water Softening    

11.15       Chemistry of Lime—Soda Ash Process    

11.16       Process Variations in Lime—Soda Ash Softening    

11.17       Other Methods of Water  Softening    

Iron and Manganese Removal    

11.18       Chemistry of Iron and Manganese   

11.19       Preventive Treatment   

11.20       Iron and Manganese Removal Processes    

Disinfection and By-Product Formation    

11.21       Chlorine and Chloramines    

11.22       Chlorine Dioxide    

11.23       Ozone    

11.24       Ultraviolet Radiation

11.25       Disinfection By-Products   

11.26       Control of Disinfection By-Products    

11.27       Disinfection/Disinfection By-Products Rule    

Disinfection of Potable Water    

11.28       Concept of the  Product    

11.29       Surface Water Disinfection    

11.30       Groundwater Disinfection    

Disinfection of Wastewater    

11.31       Conventional Effluent Disinfection    

11.32       Tertiary Effluent Disinfection    

Taste and Odor    

11.33       Control of Taste and Odor    

Fluoridation    

11.34       Fluoridation    

Corrosion and Corrosion Control    

11.35       Electrochemical Mechanism of Iron Corrosion    

11.36       Corrosion of Lead Pipe and Solder    

11.37       Corrosion of Sewer Pipes    

                Membrane Processes  

11.38       Membrane Filtration  

11.39       Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration  

Volatile Organic Chemical Removal   

11.40       Design of Air-Stripping Towers    

Synthetic Organic Chemical Removal    

11.41       Activated Carbon Adsorption    

11.42       Granular Activated Carbon Systems    

 Reduction of Dissolved Salts    

11.43       Distillation of Seawater    

11.44       Ion Exchange  

Problems    

References    

Chapter 12   Biological Treatment Processes    

Biological Considerations    

12.1         Bacteria and Fungi    

12.2         Algae    

12.3         Protozoa and Higher Animals    

12.4         Metabolism, Energy, and Synthesis    

12.5         Enzyme Kinetics    

12.6         Growth Kinetics of Pure Bacterial Cultures    

12.7         Biological Growth in Wastewater Treatment    

12.8         Factors Affecting Growth    

12.9         Population Dynamics    

Characteristics of Wastewater    

12.10       Flow and Strength Variations    

12.11       Composition of Wastewater    

Trickling (Biological) Filters    

12.12       Biological Process in Trickling Filtration    

12.13       Trickling-Filter Operation and Filter Media Requirements    

12.14       Trickling-Filter Secondary Systems    

12.15       Efficiency Equations for Stone-Media Trickling Filters    

12.16       Efficiency Equations for Plastic-Media Trickling Filters    

12.17       Combined Trickling-Filter and Activated-Sludge Processes    

12.18       Description of Rotating Biological Contactor Media and Process    

Activated Sludge    

12.19       BOD Loadings and Aeration Periods    

12.20       Operation of Activated-Sludge Processes    

12.21       Activated-Sludge Treatment Systems    

12.22       Kinetics Model of the Activated-Sludge Process    

12.23       Laboratory Determination of Kinetic Constants    

12.24       Application of the Kinetics Model in Process Design    

12.25       Oxygen Transfer and Oxygenation Requirements    

12.26       Determination of Oxygen Transfer Coefficients   

Stabilization Ponds    

12.27       Description of a Facultative Pond   

12.28       BOD Loadings of Facultative Ponds    

12.29       Advantages and Disadvantages of Stabilization Ponds    

12.30       Completely Mixed Aerated Lagoons   

Odor Control    

12.31       Sources of Odors in Wastewater Treatment    

12.32       Methods of Odor Control   

Individual On-Site Wastewater Disposal    

12.33       Septic Tank-Absorption Field System    

Marine Wastewater Disposal    

12.34       Ocean Outfalls    

Problems    

References    

Chapter 13   Processing of Sludges    

Sources, Characteristics, and Quantities of Waste Sludges    

13.1         Weight and Volume Relationships   

13.2         Characteristics and Quantities of Wastewater Sludges    

13.3         Characteristics and Quantities of Water-Processing Sludges    

Arrangement of Unit Processes in Sludge Disposal    

13.4         Selection of Processes for Wastewater Sludges    

13.5         Selection of Processes for Water Treatment Sludges    

Gravity Thickening    

13.6         Gravity Sludge Thickeners in Wastewater Treatment    

13.7         Gravity Sludge Thickeners in Water Treatment    

Gravity Belt Thickening   

13.8         Description of a Gravity Belt Thickener    

13.9         Layout of a Gravity Belt Thickener System    

13.10       Sizing of Gravity Belt Thickeners    

Flotation Thickening   

13.11       Description of Dissolved-Air Flotation    

13.12       Design of Dissolved-Air Flotation Units    

Biological Sludge Digestion    

13.13       Anaerobic Sludge Digestion    

13.14       Single-Stage Floating-Cover Digesters    

13.15       High-Rate (Completely Mixed) Digesters    

13.16       Volatile Solids Loadings and Digester Capacity   

13.17       Aerobic Sludge Digestion   

13.18       Open-Air Drying Beds    

13.19       Composting    

Pressure Filtration   

13.20       Description of Belt Filter Press Dewatering    

13.21       Application of Belt Filter Dewatering    

13.22       Sizing of Belt Filter Presses    

13.23       Description of Filter Press Dewatering   

13.24       Application of Pressure Filtration    

Centrifugation   

13.25       Description of Centrifugation    

13.26       Applications of Centrifugation    

Cycling of Waste Solids in Treatment Plants    

13.27       Suspended-Solids Removal Efficiency    

Final Disposal or Use    

13.28       Land Application    

13.29       Codisposal in a Municipal Solid-Waste Landfill    

13.30       Surface Land Disposal    

Problems    

References    

Chapter 14   Advanced Wastewater Treatment Processes and Water Reuse    

Limitations of Secondary Treatment    

14.1         Effluent Standards    

14.2         Flow Equalization    

Selection of Advanced Wastewater Treatment Processes    

14.3         Selecting and Combining Unit Processes    

Suspended-Solids Removal   

14.4         Granular-Media Filtration    

14.5         Direct Filtration with Chemical Coagulation    

Carbon Adsorption    

14.6         Granular-Carbon Columns    

14.7         Activated-Sludge Treatment with Powdered Activated Carbon    

Phosphorus Removal    

14.8         Biological Phosphorus Removal    

14.9         Biological—Chemical Phosphorus Removal    

14.10       Tracing Phosphorus Through Treatment Processes   

Nitrogen Removal    

14.11       Tracing Nitrogen Through Treatment Processes    

14.12       Biological Nitrification    

14.13       Biological Denitrification   

14.14       Single-Sludge Biological Nitrification-Denitrification    

Water Reuse    

14.15       Water Quality and Reuse Applications    

14.16       Agricultural Irrigation    

14.17       Agricultural Irrigation Reuse, Tallahassee, Florida    

14.18       Citrus Irrigation and Groundwater Recharge, Orange County and City of Orlando, Florida    

14.19       Urban Reuse    

14.20       Urban Reuse, St. Petersburg, Florida    

14.21       Indirect Reuse to Augment Drinking Water Supply   

14.22       Fred Hervey Water Reclamation Plant, El Paso, Texas   

14.23       Direct Injection for Potable Supply, El Paso, Texas   

14.24       Water Factory 21 and Groundwater Replenishment System, Orange County, California   

Problems   

References   

Appendix  

Index    

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Water Supply and Pollution Control, CourseSmart eTextbook, 8th Edition
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$93.99 | ISBN-13: 978-0-13-606835-8