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Western Heritage, The: Volume 2, Books a la Carte Edition, 10th Edition

By Donald M. Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M. Turner

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Jun 25, 2009


Written by leading scholars in the field, this authoritative text presents an engaging and balanced narrative of the central developments in Western history. Seamlessly integrating coverage of social, cultural, and political history, the presentation reflects a flexible chronological organization.


The Tenth Edition provides updated scholarship, expanded coverage of European imperialism prior to World War I, streamlined coverage of the period between the two World Wars, and a brand new feature–Compare & Connect–which presents students with two or more documents that reflect opposing viewpoints on a topic and engages them to become part of the historical discourse

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 13 European State Consolidation in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries

The Netherlands: Golden Age to Decline

Urban Prosperity

Economic Decline

Two Models of European Political Development

Constitutional Crisis and Settlement in Stuart England

James I

Charles I

The Long Parliament and Civil War

Oliver Cromwell and the Puritan Republic

Charles II and the Restoration of the Monarchy

The “Glorious Revolution”

The Age of Walpole

Rise of Absolute Monarchy in France: The World of Louis XIV

Years of Personal Rule


King by Divine Right

Louis’s Early Wars

Louis’s Repressive Religious Policies

Louis’s Later Wars

France after Louis XIV

Central and Eastern Europe

Poland: Absence of Strong Central Authority

The Habsburg Empire _and the Pragmatic Sanction

Prussia and the Hohenzollerns

Russia Enters the European Political Arena

The Romanor Dynasty

Peter the Great

The Ottoman Empire

Religious Toleration and Ottoman Government

The End of Ottoman Expansion

In Perspective

A Closer Look: Versailles
Compare & Connect: The Debate over the Origin and Character of Political Authority
Encountering the Past: Early Controversy over Tobacco and Smoking


CHAPTER 14 New Directions in Thought and Culture in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

The Scientific Revolution

Nicolaus Copernicus Rejects an Earth-Centered Universe

Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler Make New Scientific Discoveries

Galileo Galilei Argues for a Universe of Mathematical Laws

Isaac Newton Discovers _the Laws of Gravitation

Philosophy Responds to Changing Science

Nature as Mechanism

Francis Bacon: The Empirical Method

René Descartes: The Method of Rational Deduction

Thomas Hobbes: Apologist for Absolute Government

John Locke: Defender of Moderate Liberty and Toleration

The New Institutions of Expanding Natural Knowledge

Women in the World of the Scientific Revolution

The New Science and Religious Faith

The Case of Galileo

Blaise Pascal: Reason and Faith

The English Approach to Science and Religion

Continuing Superstition

Witch-Hunts and Panic

Who Were the Witches?

End of the Witch-Hunts

Baroque Art

In Perspective

A Closer Look: The Sciences and the Arts
Compare & Connect: Descartes and Swift Debate the Scientific Enterprise
Encountering the Past:  Midwives


CHAPTER 15 Society and Economy Under the Old Regime in the Eighteenth Century

Major Features of Life in the Old Regime

Maintenance of Tradition

Hierarchy and Privilege

The Aristocracy

Varieties of Aristocratic Privilege

Aristocratic Resurgence

The Land and Its Tillers

Peasants and Serfs

Aristocratic Domination of the Countryside: the English Game Laws

Family Structures and the Family Economy


The Family Economy

Women and the Family Economy

Children and the World of the Family Economy

The Revolution in Agriculture

New Crops and New Methods

Expansion of the Population

The Industrial Revolution of the Eighteenth Century

A Revolution in Consumption

Industrial Leadership of Great Britain

New Methods of Textile Production

The Steam Engine

Iron Production

The Impact of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions on Working Women

The Growth of Cities

Patterns of Preindustrial Urbanization

Urban Classes

The Urban Riot

The Jewish Population: The Age of the Ghetto

In Perspective

A Closer Look: An Aristocratic Couple
Compare & Connect: Two Eighteenth-Century Writers Contemplate the Effects of Differ-ent Economic Structures
Encountering the Past: Water, Washing, and Bathing


CHAPTER 16 The Transatlantic Economy, Trade Wars, and Colonial Rebellion

Periods of European Overseas Empires

Mercantile Empires

Mercantilist Goals

French–British Rivalry

The Spanish Colonial System

Colonial Government

Trade Regulation

Colonial Reform under the Spanish Bourbon Monarchs

Black African Slavery, the Plantation System, and the Atlantic Economy

The African Presence in the Americas

Slavery and the Transatlantic Economy

The Experience of Slavery

Mid-Eighteenth-Century Wars

The War of Jenkins’s Ear

The War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748)

The “Diplomatic Revolution” of 1756

The Seven Years’ War (1756–1763)

The American Revolution and Europe

Resistance to the Imperial Search for Revenue

The Crisis and Independence

American Political Ideas

Events in Great Britain

Broader Impact of the American Revolution

In Perspective

A Closer Look: A Sugar Plantation in the West Indies
Compare & Connect: The Atlantic Passage
Encountering the Past: Sugar Enters the Western Diet







CHAPTER 17 The Age of Enlightenment: Eighteenth-Century Thought

Formative Influences on the Enlightenment

Ideas of Newton and Locke

The Example of British Toleration and Political Stability

The Emergence of a Print Culture

The Philosophes

Voltaire—First among the Philosophes

The Enlightenment and Religion



Radical Enlightenment Criticism of Christianity

Jewish Thinkers in the Age of Enlightenment

Islam in Enlightenment Thought

The Enlightenment and Society

The Encyclopedia: Freedom and Economic Improvement

Beccaria and Reform of Criminal Law

The Physiocrats and Economic Freedom

Adam Smith on Economic Growth and Social Progress

Political Thought of the Philosophes

Montesquieu and Spirit of the Laws

Rousseau: A Radical Critique of Modern Society

Enlightened Critics of European Empires

Women in the Thought and Practice of the Enlightenment

Rococo and Neoclassical Styles in Eighteenth-Century Art

Enlightened Absolutism

Frederick the Great of Prussia

Joseph II of Austria

Catherine the Great of Russia

The Partition of Poland

The End of the Eighteenth Century in Central and Eastern Europe

In Perspective

A Closer Look: An Eighteenth-Century Artist Appeals to the Ancient World
Compare & Connect: Maria Theresa and Joseph II of Austria Debate Toleration
Encountering the Past: Coffeehouses and Enlightenment


CHAPTER 18 The French Revolution

The Crisis of the French Monarchy

The Monarchy Seeks New Taxes

Calonne’s Reform Plan and the Assembly of Notables

Deadlock and the Calling of the Estates General

The Revolution of 1789

The Estates General Becomes the National Assembly

Fall of the Bastille

The “Great Fear” and the Night of August 4

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

The Parisian Women’s March on Versailles

The Reconstruction of France

Political Reorganization

Economic Policy

The Civil Constitution of the Clergy

Counterrevolutionary Activity

The End of the Monarchy: A Second Revolution

Emergence of the Jacobins

The Convention and the Role of the Sans-culottes

Europe at War with the Revolution

Edmund Burke Attacks the Revolution

Suppression of Reform in Britain

The Second and Third Partitions of Poland, 1793, 1795

The Reign of Terror

War with Europe

The Republic Defended

The “Republic of Virtue” and Robespierre’s Justification of Terror

Repression of the Society of Revolutionary Republican Women


Revolutionary Tribunals

The End of the Terror

The Thermidorian Reaction

Establishment of the Directory

Removal of the Sans-culottes from Political Life

In Perspective

A Closer Look: Challenging the French Political Order
Compare & Connect: The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Opens the Door for Disadvantaged Groups to Demands Equal Civic Rights
Encountering The Past: The Metric System


CHAPTER 19 The Age of Napoleon and the Triumph of Romanticism

The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte

Early Military Victories

The Constitution of the Year VIII

The Consulate in France (1799–1804)

Suppressing Foreign Enemies and Domestic Opposition

Concordat with the Roman Catholic Church

The Napoleonic Code

Establishing a Dynasty

Napoleon’s Empire (1804–1814)

Conquering an Empire

The Continental System

European Response to the Empire

German Nationalism and Prussian Reform

The Wars of Liberation

The Invasion of Russia

European Coalition

The Congress of Vienna and the European Settlement

Territorial Adjustments

The Hundred Days and the Quadruple Alliance

The Romantic Movement

Romantic Questioning of the Supremacy of Reason

Rousseau and Education

Kant and Reason

Romantic Literature

The English Romantic Writers

The German Romantic Writers

Romantic Art

The Cult of the Middle Ages and Neo-Gothicism

Nature and the Sublime

Religion in the Romantic Period


New Directions in Continental Religion

Romantic Views of Nationalism and History

Herder and Culture

Hegel and History

Islam, the Middle East, and Romanticism

In Perspective

A Closer Look: The Coronation of Napoleon
Compare & Connect: The Experience of War in the Napoleonic Age
Encountering the Past: Sailors and Canned Food


CHAPTER 20 The Conservative Order and the Challenges of Reform (1815—1832)

The Challenges of Nationalism and Liberalism

The Emergence of Nationalism

Early Nineteenth-Century Political Liberalism

Conservative Governments: The Domestic Political Order

Conservative Outlooks

Liberalism and Nationalism Resisted in Austria and the Germanies

Postwar Repression in Great Britain

Bourbon Restoration in France

The Conservative International Order

The Congress System

The Spanish Revolution of 1820

Revolt against Ottoman Rule in the Balkans

The Wars of Independence in Latin America

Revolution in Haiti

Wars of Independence on the South American Continent

Independence in New Spain

Brazilian Independence

The Conservative Order Shaken in Europe

Russia: the Decembrist Revolt of 1825

Revolution in France (1830)

Belgium Becomes Independent (1830)

The Great Reform Bill in Britain (1832)

In Perspective

A Closer Look: An English Poet Appears as an Albanian
Compare & Connect: Mazzini and Lord Acton Debate the Political Principles of Nationalism
Encountering the Past: Gymnastics and German Nationalism


CHAPTER 21 Economic Advance and Social Unrest (1830–1850)

Toward an Industrial Society

Population and Migration Railways

The Labor Force

The Emergence of a Wage Labor Force

Working-Class Political Action: The Example of British Chartism

Family Structures and the Industrial Revolution

The Family in the Early Factory System

Women in the Early Industrial Revolution

Opportunities and Exploitation in Employment

Changing Expectations in the Working-Class Marriage

Problems of Crime and Order

New Police Forces

Prison Reform

Classical Economics

Malthus on Population

Ricardo on Wages

Government Policies Based on Classical Economics

Early Socialism

Utopian Socialism



1848: Year of Revolutions

France: the Second Republic and Louis Napoleon

The Habsburg Empire: Nationalism Resisted

Italy: Republicanism Defeated

Germany: Liberalism Frustrated

In Perspective

A Closer Look: The Great Exhibition in London
Compare & Connect: Andrew Ure and John Ruskin Debate the Conditions of Factory Production
Encountering the Past: The Potato and the Great Hunger in Ireland







CHAPTER 22 The Age of Nation-States

The Crimean War (1853—1856)

Peace Settlement and Long-Term Results

Reforms in the Ottoman Empire

Italian Unification

Romantic Republicans

Cavour’s Policy

The New Italian State

German Unification


The Franco-Prussian War and the German Empire (1870—1871)

France: From Liberal Empire to the Third Republic

The Paris Commune

The Third Republic

The Dreyfus Affair

The Habsburg Empire

Formation of the Dual Monarchy

Unrest of Nationalities

Russia: Emancipation and Revolutionary Stirrings

Reforms of Alexander II


Great Britain: Toward Democracy

The Second Reform Act (1867)

Gladstone’s Great Ministry (1868—1874)

Disraeli in Office (1874—1880)

The Irish Question

In Perspective

A Closer Look: The Crimean War Recalled
Compare & Connect: Two Faces of Nationalism and Drives for National Unity
Encountering the Past: The Arrival of Penny Postage


CHAPTER 23 The Building of European Supremacy: Society and Politics to World WarI

Population Trends and Migration

The Second Industrial Revolution

New Industries

Economic Difficulties

The Middle Classes in Ascendancy

Social Distinctions within the Middle Classes

Late-Nineteenth-Century Urban Life

The Redesign of Cities

Urban Sanitation

Housing Reform and Middle-Class Values

Varieties of Late-Nineteenth-Century Women’s Experiences

Women’s Social Disabilities

New Employment Patterns for Women

Working-Class Women

Poverty and Prostitution

Women of the Middle Class

The Rise of Political Feminism

Jewish Emancipation

Differing Degrees of Citizenship

Broadened Opportunities

Labor, Socialism, and Politics to World War I

Trade Unionism

Democracy and Political Parties

Karl Marx and the First International

Great Britain: Fabianism and Early Welfare Programs

France: “Opportunism” Rejected

Germany: Social Democrats and Revisionism

Russia: Industrial Development and the Birth of Bolshevism

In Perspective

A Closer Look: Bloody Sunday, St. Petersburg 1905
Compare & Connect: Bernstein and Lenin Debate the Character of Tactics of European Socialism
Encountering the Past: Bicycles: Transportation, Freedom, and Sport


CHAPTER 24 The Birth of Modern European Thought

The New Reading Public

Advances in Primary Education

Reading Material for the Mass Audience

Science at Mid-century

Comte, Positivism, and the Prestige of Science

Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection

Science and Ethics

Christianity and the Church under Siege

Intellectual Skepticism

Conflict between Church and State

Areas of Religious Revival

The Roman Catholic Church and the Modern World

Islam and Late-Nineteenth-Century European Thought

Toward a Twentieth-Century Frame of Mind

Science: The Revolution in Physics

Literature: Realism and Naturalism

Modernism in Literature

The Coming of Modern Art

Friedrich Nietzsche and the Revolt Against Reason

The Birth of Psychoanalysis

Retreat from Rationalism in Politics


Anti-Semitism and the Birth of Zionism

Women and Modern Thought

Anti-feminism in Late-Nineteenth-Century Thought

New Directions in Feminism

In Perspective

A Closer Look: Conflict Between Church and State in Germany
Compare & Connect: The Debate over Social Darwinism
Encountering the Past: The Birth of Science Fiction


CHAPTER 25 The Age of Western Imperialism

The Close of the Age of Early Modern Colonization

The Age of British Imperial Dominance

The Imperialism of Free Trade

British Settler Colonies

India—The Jewel in the Crown of the British Empire

The “New Imperialism,” 1870-1914

Motives for the New Imperialism

The Partition of Africa

Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, and Libya

Egypt and British Strategic Concern about the Upper Nile

West Africa

The Belgian Congo

German Empire in Africa

Southern Africa

Russian Expansion in Mainland Asia

Western Powers in Asia

France in Asia

The United States Actions in Asia and the Pacific

The Boxer Rebellion

Tools of Imperialism


Conquest of Tropical Diseases


The Missionary Factor

Evangelical Protestant Missionaries

Roman Catholic Missionary Advance

Tensions between Missionaries and Imperial Administrators

Missionaries and Indigenous Religious Movements

Science and Imperialism





In Perspective

A Closer Look: The French in Morocco
Compare & Connect: Two Views of Turn-of-the-Twentieth Century Imperial Expansion
Encountering the Past: Imperialism Determining the Application of Submarine Cable Communication




CHAPTER 26 Alliances, War, and a Troubled Peace

Emergence of the German Empire and the Alliance Systems (1873–1890)

Bismarck’s Leadership

Forging the Triple Entente (1890–1907)

World War I

The Road to War (1908–1914)

Sarajevo and the Outbreak of War (June–August 1914)

Strategies and Stalemate; 1914–1917

The Russian Revolution

The Provisional Government

Lenin and the Bolsheviks

The Communist Dictatorship

The End of World War I

Germany’s Last Offensive

The Armistice

The End of the Ottoman Empire

The Settlement at Paris

Obstacles the Peacemakers Faced

The Peace

World War I and Colonial Empires

Evaluating the Peace

In Perspective

A Closer Look: The Development of the Armored Tank
Compare & Connect: The Outbreak of World War I
Encountering the Past: War Propaganda and the Movies: Charlie Chaplin


CHAPTER 27 The Interwar Years: The Challenge of Dictators and Depression

After Versailles: Demands for Revision and Enforcement

Toward the Great Depression in Europe

Financial Tailspin

Problems in Agricultural Commodities

Depression and Government Policy in Britain and France

The Soviet Experiment

War Communism

The New Economic Policy

The Third International

Stalin versus Trotsky

The Decision for Rapid Industrialization

The Collectivization of Agriculture

The Purges

The Fascist Experiment in Italy

The Rise of Mussolini

The Fascists in Power

German Democracy and Dictatorship

The Weimar Republic

Depression and Political Deadlock

Hitler Comes to Power

Hitler’s Consolidation of Power

Anti-Semitism and the Police State

Racial Ideology and the Lives of Women

Nazi Economic Policy

Trials of the Successor States in Eastern Europe

Economic and Ethnic Pressures

Poland: Democracy to Military Rule

Czechoslovakia: A Viable Democratic Experiment

Hungary: Turmoil and Authoritarianism

Austria: Political Turmoil and Nazi Occupation

Southeastern Europe: Royal Dictatorships

In Perspective

A Closer Look: The Nazi Party Rally
Compare & Connect: The Soviets and the Nazis Confront the Issues of Women and the Family
Encountering the Past: Cinema of the Political Left and Right





CHAPTER 28 World War II

Again the Road to War (1933–1939)

Hitler’s goals

Italy Attacks Ethiopia

Remilitarization of the Rhineland

The Spanish Civil War

Austria and Czechoslovakia


The Nazi-Soviet Pact

World War II (1939–1945)

The German Conquest of Europe

The Battle of Britain

The German Attack on Russia

Hitler’s Plans for Europe

Japan and the United States Enter the War

The Defeat of Nazi Germany

The Tide Turns

Fall of the Japanese Empire

The Cost of War

Racism and the Holocaust

The Destruction of the Polish Jewish Community

Polish Anti-Semitism Between the Wars

The Nazi Assault on the Jews of Poland

Explanations of the Holocaust

The Domestic Fronts

Germany: From Apparent Victory to Defeat

France: Defeat, Collaboration, and Resistance

Great Britain: Organization for Victory

The Soviet Union: “The Great Patriotic War”

Preparations for Peace

The Atlantic Charter

Tehran: Agreement on a Second Front



In Perspective

A Closer Look: The Vichy Regime in France
Compare & Connect: The Munich Settlement
Encountering the Past: Rosie the Riveter and American Women in the War


CHAPTER 29 The Cold War Era, Decolonization, and the Emergence of a New Europe

The Emergence of the Cold War

Containment in American Foreign Policy

Soviet Domination of Eastern Europe

The Postwar Division of Germany

NATO and the Warsaw Pact

The Creation of the State of Israel

The Korean War

The Khrushchev Era in the Soviet Union

Khruschev’s Domestic Policies

The Three Crises of 1956

Later Cold War Confrontations

The Berlin Wall

The Cuban Missile Crisis

The Brezhnev Era

1968: The Invasion of Czechoslovakia

The U.S. and Détente

The Invasion of Afghanistan

Communism and Solidarity in Poland

Relations with the Reagan Administration

Decolonization: The European Retreat from Empire

Major Areas of Colonial Withdrawal


Further British Retreat from Empire

The Turmoil of French Decolonization

France and Algeria

France and Vietnam

Vietnam Drawn into the Cold War

Direct United States. Involvement

The Collapse of European Communism

Gorbachev Attempts to Reform the Soviet Union

1989: Revolution in Eastern Europe

The Collapse of the Soviet Union

The Yelstsin Decade

The Collapse of Yugoslavia and Civil War

Putin and the Resurgence of Russia

The Rise of Radical Political Islamism

Arab Nationalism

The Iranian Revolution

Afghanistan and Radical Islamism

A Transformed West

In Perspective

A Closer Look: Collapse of the Berlin Wall
Compare & Connect: The Soviet Union and the United States Draw the Lines of the Cold War
Encountering The Past: Rock Music and Political Protest


CHAPTER 30 The West at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century

The Twentieth-Century Movement of Peoples

Displacement through War

External and Internal Migration

The New Muslim Population

European Population Trends

Toward a Welfare State Society

Christian Democratic Parties

The Creation of Welfare States

Resistance to the Expansion of the Welfare State

New Patterns in the Work and Expectations of Women


More Married Women in the Workforce

New Work Patterns

Women in the New Eastern Europe

Transformations in Knowledge and Culture

Communism and Western Europe


Expansion of the University Population and Student Rebellion

The Americanization of Europe

A Consumer Society


Art Since World War II

Cultural Divisions and the Cold War

Memory of the Holocaust

The Christian Heritage


Liberal Theology

Roman Catholic Reform

Late-Twentieth-Century Technology: The Arrival of the Computer

The Demand for Calculating Machines

Early Computer Technology 

The Development of Desktop Computers

The Challenges of European Unification

Postwar Cooperation

The European Economic Community

The European Union

Discord over the Union

New American Leadership and Financial Crisis

In Perspective

A Closer Look: The Copenhagen Opera House
Compare & Connect: Margaret Thatcher and Tony Blair Debate the Government Social Responsibility for Welfare
Encountering the Past: Toys from Europe Conquer the United States