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Whole Child, The: Developmental Education for the Early Years, 9th Edition

By Joanne Hendrick, Patricia Weissman

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Feb 4, 2009

Description

“If we offer the young children we teach rich and appropriate learning opportunities combined with enough time for them to enjoy and experience those opportunities to the fullest, we will enhance childhood, not violate it.”

 

The Whole Child is a practical methods book that explains how to teach young children in ways that foster healthy development.  This text focuses on the "whole child" and what they need from the learning environment in order to thrive. It pictures the child as being made up of "selves" - emotional, social, physical, creative, and cognitive--and then examines each of those selves in turn.  The physical self includes not only large and fine muscle development, but also the handling of routines because such things as eating, resting, and toileting contribute much to physical comfort and well-being. For the emotional self, the book considers ways to increase and sustain mental health, to cope with crises, to use discipline to foster self-control, to cope with aggression, and to foster self-esteem. Included for the social self are ways to build social concern and kindliness and learning to value the cultures of other people. The creative self covers the areas of self-expression through the use of art materials and creativity as expressed in play and applied in thought. Finally, the cognitive, or intellectual, self is considered in terms of language and literacy development--the development of reasoning and thinking skills via the emergent approach, and the development of specific reasoning abilities.

 

New To This Edition:

 

NEW! — Presents the content in a new 16-chapter format.

  • Chapter 6 is a new chapter on Assessment and Planning–Helps students understand the current emphasis on standards-based education and how to maintain ”best practices” while meeting school requirements.
  • Chapter 15 is a new chapter, Fostering the Creative Self–Discusses what creativity is, how it develops, and what teachers can do to enhance children’s creative growth.
  • Chapter 16 is a new chapter, Developing and Implementing Curriculum for the Whole Child–Helps students pull together the different elements of early childhood education into a cohesive program for the whole child.
  • Other chapters were combined and streamlined for more practical use by instructors. (The content from Chapter 7, Tender Topics, has been integrated into other chapters.) 

NEW!  Discusses the integrated curriculum–Helps students understand the importance of meeting all of the children’s developmental needs across the curriculum spectrum. 

 

NEW!  Presents new information about the ecological theory of human development as outlined by Urie Brofenbrenner. 

 

NEW!  Includes content on children in elementary grades 1-3 in each chapter–Expands the usefulness of the text to primary school teachers.

Table of Contents

Part I The Basics of Good Early Childhood Education

 

Chapter 1

What Is Good Education for Young Children?

 

Realize You Are Part of a Noble Profession

Can Early Childhood Make a Difference?

  • Brain Development Research
  • Effects of Early Childhood Education
  • Research Implications for Teaching

Theoretical Foundations of Early Childhood Education

  • Developmental Approaches
  • Psychoanalytical Theory
  • Family-Ecological Theory
  • Active Learning, Constructivist Theories
  • Behaviorist or Learning Theory

From Theory to Practice

Types of Early Childhood Education

  • All Programs Include Children with Special Needs
  • Center-Based Care
  • Family Child Care
  • Public School Programs
  • A Final Thought About Programs

Basic Premises of This Book

Putting Premises Into Practice: Planning a Good Day For Children

  • Good Human Relationships Are a Fundamental Ingredient of a Good Day
  • Families Must Be Included as Part of the Life of the School
  • High-Quality Education Must Be Developmentally Appropriate
  • High-Quality Education Is Individualized
  • High-Quality Education Honors Diversity in Its Many Forms
  • High-Quality Education Uses Reasonable and Authentic Methods of Assessment to Find Out More About the Children
  • High-Quality Education Has a Balance Between Self-Selection and Teacher Direction; Both Approaches Are Valuable
  • High-Quality Education Should Be Comprehensive
  • High-Quality Education Has Stability and Regularity Combined with Flexibility
  • High-Quality Education Has Variety
  • Learning Must Be Based on Actual Experience and Participation
  • The Program Should Be Reflected on Daily
  • High-Quality Education Promotes Ethical Standards for Teachers
  • High-Quality Education Should Encourage Advocacy
  • The Day Should Be Pleasurable

 

Chapter 2

Working with Families

 

Opening the Door to Good Communication

Understanding Families

  • Family Diversity
  • Challenges to Working with Families
  • Suggestions for Establishing a Good Relationship Between Family and Teacher

What If The Relationship Is Not Good?

  • The Preamble: What to Do Before the Situation Arises
  • Coping with the Initial Encounter: What to Do When That Button Is Pushed
  • What to Do After the Complainer Departs
  • The Return Engagement

Maintaining Good Relationships: Keeping the Lines of Communication Open

Counseling with Families

Practical Pointers about Conducting a Conference

  • Avoid Interruptions
  • Beginning the Conference
  • During the Conference, Stay as Relaxed as Possible
  • Drawing the Conference to a Close
  • What to Do After the Conference
  • Finally, Remember That Information Shared by Parents During a Conference Is Confidential
  • Limits to Guidance Work

Beyond the Conference: Further Strategies for Involving Families

Families in Crisis

What Constitutes a Crisis?

Some General Principles for Helping Families Deal with Crises

  • Make Certain the Families Understand That It Is Better to Include the Child in the Situation Than to Exclude Him
  • Try Not to Overreact, No Matter What the Family Tells You
  • Do Not Violate the Privacy of the Family
  • Offer Yourself as a Resource
  • Child Abuse, Neglect, Sexual Molestation, And Emotional Maltreatment

 

Chapter 3

Fostering Creativity in Play

 

Purposes of Play

·         Play Fosters Physical Development

·         Outdoor Play Connects Children to Nature and Their Environment

·         Play Fosters Intellectual Development

·         Play Enhances Social Development

·         Play Contains Rich Emotional Values

·         Play Develops the Creative Aspect of the Child’s Personality

·         Play Is Deeply Satisfying to Children

Developmental Stages of Play

  • Educational Implications

Factors Likely to Facilitate Creative Play

  • Allow Children’s Ideas to Develop and Avoid Dominating the Play

Some Practical Ways to Stimulate and Extend Play

  • Make a Special Point of Including Children Who Have Disabilities in the Play
  • Cast Yourself in the Role of Assistant to the Child as You Help Play Emerge
  • A Rich Background of Actual Life Experience Is Fundamental to Developing Creative Play
  • Offer Many Opportunities For Outdoor Play
  • Equipment Plays An Important Role in Facilitating Play
  • Keep Play Areas Safe and Attractive
  • A Final Thought

Specific Activities to Encourage Creativity in Play

  • Creative Dramatic Play — “Just Pretending”
  • Block Play
  • Water Play
  • Mud and Sand
  • Computer Play

 

Chapter 4

Providing Cross-Cultural, Nonsexist Education

 

Teachers’ Attitudes

  • Can Such Attitudes Be Changed?

Suggestions for Controlling and Overcoming Expressions of Prejudice

  • Broaden Your Frame of Understanding and Acceptance; Find Out What People Are Really Like!

Is Early Childhood Too Soon to Begin Cross-Cultural, Nonsexist Education?

What Do Cross-Cultural and Nonsexist Education Have in Common?

Principles of Cross-Cultural Education

  • Recognize and Honor Cultural and Ethnic Differences: Encourage Cultural Pluralism
  • Value Individual Children For Their Special Qualities: Teach Cultural Pluralism
  • Beginning Steps: Include Concrete, Visible Evidence of Cultural Diversity
  • Suggestions That Foster Deeper Cross-Cultural Understanding

Emphasizing the Similarities As Well As Valuing the Uniqueness of People

  • Teach the Commonality of Biological and Psychological Needs
  • Help Families Look Beyond Various Differences to Focus on Common Goals
  • Keep Working Toward the Basic Goals of Socialization That Teach Children to Consider the Rights and Needs of Everyone

Can Teaching About Cultural Uniqueness and Similarity of Needs Be Combined?

Encouraging Equity By Providing a Nonsexist Education and Helping Children Value Their Own Sexuality

  • Teaching Simple Physiological Facts
  • Masturbation
  • Meeting the Special Needs of Boys in School
  • Suggestions For Providing a Nonsexist Curriculum

 

Chapter 5

Welcoming Children Who Have Special Needs Into the Life of the School

 

Identifying Children Who Have Special Needs and Finding Help For Them: The Teacher as a Screening Agent

  • Referring Children for Special Help: Calling the Difficulty to the Family’s Attention
  • Finding the Appropriate Referral Source
  • Observing Professional Ethics

Including Children Who Have Disabilities

  • What the Laws Say
  • When Planning the IEP, It Is Essential to Have a Careful Assessment of the Child’s Accomplishments and Abilities Available

Learning to Work as a Member of the Team

Getting Started with a Child Who Has a Disability

  • Welcome the Child and Family
  • It Is Important to Make it Clear to the Family That the Staff Has Great Goodwill but Also Has Certain Limitations
  • The Staff Will Have to Come to Terms with How Much Extra Effort the Child Will Require Them to Expend Every Day
  • It Will Be Necessary for the Staff to Examine Their Feelings About Children with Disabilities
  • Many Seemingly Insurmountable Problems Can Be Solved During the Trial Period If the Staff and Family Are Creatively Minded
  • There Are Several Ways to Ease Entry Pangs
  • Many Disabilities Will Pass Unnoticed by Other Children in the Group, But Some Will Require Explanation

General Recommendations for Working with Children Who Have Disabilities

  • See Through the Exceptional to the Typical in Every Child
  • Try to Steer a Middle Course, Neither Overprotecting nor Overexpecting
  • Be Realistic
  • Keep Regular Records of the Child’s Development
  • Remain in Constant Contact with the Family

Identifying and Helping Children Who Have Physical Disabilities and Illnesses

  • Some Specific Physical Conditions and Symptoms of Which the Teacher Should Be Aware
  • Attention Deficit Disorder
  • Further Guidelines for Working With Children Who Have Physical Challenges

Identifying and Helping Children Who Have Emotional Difficulties

  • Signs of Emotional Disturbance That Indicate a Referral Is Needed
  • Guidelines for Working with Children Who Have Emotional Disturbance

Identifying and Helping Children Who Have Delayed or Advanced Mental Ability

  • Intellectually Gifted Children

 

Chapter 6

Using Standards and Assessment in Early Childhood Education

 

What Are Early Learning Standards?

Where Do Standards Come From?

  • Program and School Standards
  • NAEYC Program Accreditation Standards
  • State Early Learning Standards

What Is Assessment?

  • Effective, Appropriate Assessment in Early Childhood Education

Types of Assessment

  • Developmental Screening
  • Assessment to Support Learning and Development

 

Important Principles about Assessments

  • Children’s Records Are Private and Should Be Kept Confidential
  • Use Assessment to Connect with Families
  • Carry Out Assessments More Than One Time
  • Take Varying Ethnic/Cultural Backgrounds into Account
  • Make Sure Assessments Are Comprehensive and Include Measures for All Five Selves
  • Put Assessment to Good Use in Planning Curriculum
  • Use Assessment to Benefit Children with Disabilities
  • Interpret Assessment Results Cautiously

 

Chapter 7

Handling Daily Routines

 

Schedules and Transitions into Routines

  • Schedules
  • Transition Times

Routines of Arrival and Departure

  • Introduce the Child to School Gradually
  • Handle Outbursts of Emotion with Care

Routines That Center Around Eating

  • Adequate Nutrition Is Important
  • Planning Appealing and Nutritious Meals
  • Some Basic Principles Having to Do with Eating
  • Special Eating Concerns

The Process of Toileting in Preprimary Centers

  • Diapering and Toilet Learning
  • Taking Children to the Toilet
  • Handling Mishaps

Handling Nap Times

  • Regularize the Routine
  • Allow the Children to Get Up as They Wake Up
  • How Long Should Children Sleep?
  • Should All Children Nap?

 

Part II Supporting the Development of the Whole Child

 

Chapter 8

Promoting the Development of the Physical Self

 

Promotion of Health and Safety in the Children’s Center

  • Providing Safe Transportation to School is a Must!
  • Basic Ways to Protect and Foster the Physical Health of Children
  • Maintaining the Physical Safety of Children

Basic Principles of Physical Development

  • Development Occurs in Predictable Patterns and Sequences
  • The Course of Development Moves from Head to Tail
  • The Course of Development Moves from Large to Fine Muscle Control

Fostering Large Muscle Development in Young Children

  • Use of Apparatus to Promote Large Muscle Skills
  • Role of the Teacher in Fostering Large Muscle Play
  • Fostering Play in Children with Special Needs

Teachers’ Support of Children’s Fitness

  • Programs Should Encourage Physical Activity — and Plenty of it!

Use of Perceptual-Motor Activities to Enhance Physical Development

  • Fostering Fine Muscle Development (Daily Motor Activities)
  • Using Physical Activity to Promote Creative Thought and Self-Expression

Fostering Sensory Experience

  • The Sensory Experience of Close Physical Contact Is Important to Children

 

Chapter 9

Strengthening the Development of the Emotional Self

 

Importance of Developing Basic Attitudes of Trust, Autonomy, and Initiative in Young Children

Hallmarks of an Emotionally Healthy Young Child

  • Is the Child Working on Emotional Tasks That Are Appropriate for His Age?
  • Is the Child Learning to Separate from His Family Without Undue Stress and to Form an Attachment with at Least One Other Adult at School?
  • Is the Child Learning to Conform to Routines at School Without Undue Fuss?
  • Is the Child Able to Involve Himself Deeply in Play?
  • Is the Child Developing the Ability to Settle Down and Concentrate?
  • Is the Child Unusually Withdrawn or Aggressive for His Age?
  • Does the Child Have Access to the Full Range of His Feelings, and Is He Learning to Deal with Them in an Age-Appropriate Way?

Personal Qualities That Will Help the Teacher Establish an Emotionally Positive Climate in the Children’s Center

  • Consistency
  • Reasonableness
  • Courage and Strength of Character
  • Being Genuine
  • Empathy
  • Warmth
  • Appreciation
  • Good Health

Practical Ways to Help Young Children Achieve Healthy Emotional Development

  • Remember That Children Have Different Temperaments
  • Reduce Frustration for the Children When Possible
  • Learn to Couple Language with Emotion by Identifying and Describing Children’s Feelings to Them and by Helping Them Express These Feelings to Relevant People in an Acceptable Way
  • Teach Children the Difference Between Verbal Attack and Self-Report
  • Learn to Recognize Signs of Stress and Emotional Upset in Children
  • Know What to Do for Children Who Are Emotionally Upset

Promote Every Child’s Sense of Self-Esteem

  • Unconditional Positive Regard
  • Honest Recognition and Praise
  • Respect
  • Helping the Child Achieve Competence
  • Allow Children to Experience Mastery by Making Their Own Choices and by Being as Independent as Possible
  • Provide Opportunities That Are Challenging but Not Excessively Difficult to Give Children the Chance to Test Themselves Against Difficulties
  • Emphasize the Value of Building Cross-Sex Competencies of Various Kinds
  • Make Certain That Children with Disabilities Experience Opportunities to Build Competence, Too
  • Offer Many Opportunities to Accomplish Meaningful Work
  • Offer Creative Activities Because They Provide Excellent Opportunities for Experiencing Competence
  • Help Children Connect with Nature to Soothe the Soul

 

Chapter 10

Enhancing the Development of the Social Self: Encouraging Social Competence in Young Children

 

The Importance of Helping Young Children Develop Social Competence

Developmental Trends in Social Growth

  • How Do Children Become Socialized?
  • Implications for Teaching
  • The Development of Social Skills

Helping Children Become Socially Competent: Suggestions for Teaching Appropriate Social Skills

  • Goal I: Help Children Develop Empathy
  • Goal II: Help Children Learn to Be Generous, Altruistic, and Able to Share Equipment, Experiences, and People with Other Children
  • Goal III: Help Children Learn That Being Kind to Other People Feels Good
  • Helping Other People Is One Way of Expressing Kindness
  • Goal IV: Teach Children That Everyone Has Rights and That These Rights Are Respected by All
  • Goal V: Emphasize the Value of Cooperation and Compromise Rather Than Stress Competition and Winning
  • Goal VI: Help Children Discover the Pleasures of Friendship
  • Goal VII: Help Children with Special Needs Fit into the Life of the Group

 

Chapter 11

Enhancing the Development of the Social Self: Fostering Self-Discipline and Conflict Resolution Skills

 

Discipline or Guidance Toward Self-Discipline?

Establishing Inner Controls: Ego Strength, Moral Development, and Social Awareness

  • Why Does Self-Control Matter?
  • Suggestions for Creating a Peaceable, Caring Classroom in Which Children Develop Self-Discipline and Conflict Resolution Skills

Reducing Aggression in the Classroom

  • Undesirable Ways to Cope with Aggression
  • Conclusion

 

Chapter 12

Fostering the Development of Language Skills

 

The Components of Language

How Children Develop Language

  • Contributions by Adults to the Child’s Acquisition of Language

Developmental Milestones

Basic Ways to Foster Language Development

  • I. Listen to the Children
  • II. Give the Children Something Real to Talk About
  • III. Encourage Conversation Between Children
  • IV. Encourage Conversation and Dialogue Between Teachers and Children
  • V. Use Questions and Answers That Generate Speech and Develop Language
  • VI. When Necessary, Seek Professional Assistance Promptly

Language and Dialectical Differences

  • Which Language Should the Teacher Encourage?

Children Who Have Special Disabilities Related to Speech and Hearing

  • Children with Disorders of Articulation
  • Children with Delayed Speech
  • Children with Disorders of Hearing
  • Children Who Stutter

 

Chapter 13

Fostering the Emergence of Literacy

 

What Is the Difference Between Fostering Emergent Literacy and Teaching Children to Read and Write?

Some Fundamental Principles to Keep in Mind

  • Encourage Families to Read to the Children at Home
  • Teachers Should Make It Plain That They Value the Wonderful World of Books
  • Teachers Should Emphasize How Useful the Written Word Can Be

Even Very Young Children Can and Should Be Involved in Producing the Written Word

  • Writing on Their Own
  • Writing in the Primary Grades
  • Having Someone Write for Them

Suggestions for Presenting a Language-Rich Group-Time Experience

  • Include a Variety of Activities
  • Some Specific Suggestions About Materials to Include
  • Management Suggestions to Help Group Time Go More Smoothly

 

Chapter 14

Supporting the Development of the Cognitive Self

 

Approaches to Supporting the Development of the Cognitive Self

What is the Piagetian-Based “Conventional Approach” in Early Childhood Education?

·         Basic Concepts of Piagetian Psychology

·         How Is Piagetian Theory Linked with Such Midlevel Skills as Matching and Grouping?

How to Provide Opportunities for Practicing Concept Formation Skills

  • Develop Needed Materials
  • Provide Consistent Opportunities for Practice
  • Above All, Make Certain the Activities Are Fun

Some Practical Suggestions about Presenting Midlevel Thinking and Reasoning Skills in the Curriculum

  • Matching
  • Grouping
  • Perceiving Common Relations
  • Understanding the Relationship Between Simple Cause and Effect
  • Ordering

Use Questions That “Provoke” the Children into Thinking for Themselves as their Ideas and Mental Abilities Emerge

  • Sort Out the Different Kinds of Teacher-Generated Questions: Understand the Difference Between Using Fact and Thought Questions
  • Wait for Answers and Ask Only a Few Questions at a Time
  • Resist the Impulse to Always Answer the Children’s Questions Yourself
  • Encourage the Child or the Group to Produce More Than One Answer

 

Chapter 15

Nurturing the Development of the Creative Self

 

What is Creativity?

The Importance of Creativity

  • Creativity Supports Emotional Development
  • Creativity Supports Social Development
  • Creativity Supports Physical Development
  • Creativity Supports Language and Literacy Development
  • Creativity Supports Cognitive Development

The Stages of Development in Children’s Creativity

Implications for Teachers in Nurturing Children’s Creativity

  • Use Lots of Self-Expressive Materials to Foster the Creative Self
  • Remember to Make Self-Expressive Opportunities Available for Children with Disabilities
  • Foster an Appreciation of Beauty

 

Chapter 16

Developing the Whole Child: Integrating the Five Selves Throughout the Curriculum

 

Selecting Values and Priorities in the Curriculum

Priority 1: Practice Intentional Teaching

Priority 2: Incorporate Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP)

Priority 3: Develop an Integrated Curriculum That Supports the Five Selves of the Whole Child and Teaches to Multiple Intelligences

Priority 4: Find Ways to Encourage Child-Centered Active Learning; Use an Emergent Curriculum Approach

  • Some Basic Concepts of Vygotskian Psychology
  • The Reggio Approach

Some Basic Principles to Remember When Using the Emergent Approach

  • Foster the Children’s Ability to Generate Their Own Creative Ideas
  • Base the Curriculum on the Interests of the Children as Their Ideas Develop
  • Remember to Keep the Pathway Focused: Don’t Let It Branch Off in Too Many Directions
  • The Number of Children’s Ideas Will Be Increased If the Teacher Recognizes Their Value and Responds to Them in a Positive Way
  • Enable the Children to Translate Their Ideas into Concrete, Tangible Experiences
  • Also Allow Children to Experience Failure
  • Make Certain the Children Use Some Form of Expressive Medium to Explain to Other People What They Have Found Out
  • An Example of How Midlevel Mental Abilities Can Be Included — and Learning Standards Can Be Met — as Part of an Emergent Approach

Priority 5: Focus on Teaching Happiness and Joy in Learning as Much as Academic Skills

 

 

 

Purchase Info

ISBN-10: 0-13-715305-8

ISBN-13: 978-0-13-715305-3

Format: Alternate Binding

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