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Windows PowerShell Unleashed, 2nd Edition

By Tyson Kopczynski, Pete Handley, Marco Shaw

Published by Sams

Published Date: Dec 4, 2008

Description

PowerShell gives Windows administrators immense power to automate and customize virtually any administrative task—saving time, increasing productivity, and giving you unprecedented flexibility. PowerShell 2.0 adds important new features that offer even greater control over Windows environments. Windows PowerShell Unleashed will not only give you deep mastery over PowerShell but also a greater understanding of the features being introduced in PowerShell 2.0—and show you how to use it to solve your challenges in your production environment.

 

The authors begin by systematically illuminating PowerShell’s core concepts and techniques, helping you leverage whatever Windows scripting experience you may already have. Next, using complete, easy-to-adapt examples, they show how to use PowerShell to manage file systems, permissions, the Registry, WMI objects, Active Directory, Exchange Server, and many other elements of the Windows environment.

 

More than half of this edition’s material and examples have been completely rewritten for PowerShell 2.0, and the authors have added seven entirely new chapters—covering security, PowerShell application development, Systems Center Operations Manager 2007, and much more. Whatever Windows systems you manage, Windows PowerShell Unleashed contains the scripts and techniques you need to manage them far more effectively. 

  • Install, configure, and customize PowerShell 2.0 and master its command line interface
  • Discover proven best practices for PowerShell scripting
  • Make the most of PowerShell cmdlets—especially the new cmdlets included in PowerShell 2.0
  • Leverage PowerShell’s deep .NET Framework integration
  • Secure your scripts using code signing, execution policies, and PowerShell’s built-in security
  • Use custom script functions to manage permissions more efficiently
  • Control the registry locally and remotely and use PowerShell’s powerful new registry transactions
  • Use PowerShell as a management interface
  • Automate Exchange Server 2007 administrative tasks
  • Automate the management of Microsoft’s new System Center Operations Manager 2007
  • Preview the forthcoming Graphical PowerShell scripting environment
  • Understand how to manage Active Directory using PowerShell
  • Master using PowerShell with WMI
  • Learn PowerShell 2.0 remoting

Download all examples and source code presented in this book from informit.com/title/9780672329883.

Table of Contents

Introduction     1

Part I     Introduction to PowerShell

 

1     Introduction to Shells     7

What Is a Shell?     7

Basic Shell Use     8

Basic Shell Scripts     11

A Shell History      15

Enter PowerShell     16

New Capabilities in PowerShell 2.0 CTP2     18

Summary     19

 

2     Basic PowerShell Concepts     21

Getting Started     21

PowerShell 1.0 RTW     22

PowerShell 2.0 CTP2     23

Before Installing PowerShell 2.0 CTP2     23

Downloading and Installing PowerShell 2.0     25

Understanding the Command-Line Interface (CLI)      28

Navigating the CLI     30

Tab Key Auto-Completion in PowerShell     30

Understanding Cmdlets     32

Common Parameters     33

Getting Help     34

Get-Help     34

Cmdlet Help Topics     36

Get-Command     36

Understanding Variables     39

Built-In Variables     40

Understanding Aliases     42

Discovering Alias Cmdlets     43

Creating Persistent Aliases     44

Creating Your First Script     45

Summary     47

 

3     Advanced PowerShell Concepts     49

Working with the .NET Framework     51

Using the New-Object Cmdlet     53

Understanding Assemblies     54

Understanding Reflection     56

Understanding the Pipeline     59

Powerful One-Liners     63

The Extended Type System (ETS)      65

Understanding the Add-Member Cmdlet     67

Understanding the types.ps1xml File     68

Working with Types     68

Type Accelerators     71

Summary     72

 

4     Other Key PowerShell Concepts     73

Formatting Output     73

The Formatting Cmdlets     74

PowerShell’s Formatting under the Hood     74

Customizing Output Formats     75

Providers     79

Accessing Drives and Data     82

Mounting a Drive     85

Profiles     87

The All Users Profile     87

The All Users Host-Specific Profile     87

The Current User’s Profile     88

The Current User’s Host-Specific Profile     88

Scopes     88

The Global Scope     88

The Local Scope     89

The Script Scope     89

The Private Scope     90

Dot Sourcing     91

Library Files     91

Summary     97

 

5     Understanding PowerShell Security     99

PowerShell Default Security     100

Execution Policies     100

Restricted     100

AllSigned     101

RemoteSigned     101

Unrestricted     103

Setting the Execution Policy     103

Code Signing     105

What Is Code Signing?      106

Obtaining a Code-Signing Certificate     107

The PVK Digital Certificate Files Importer     112

Signing PowerShell Scripts     112

Verifying Digital Signatures     113

Signed Code Distribution     115

Enterprise Code Distribution     117

Public Code Distribution     117

PowerShell Security Best Practices     118

Digitally Sign PowerShell Scripts and Configuration Files     118

Never Set Execution Policies to Unrestricted     118

Try to Run Scripts with the Minimum Required Rights     118

PowerShell 2.0 CTP2 and Windows Remote Management (WinRM)      119

Configuring WinRM     119

Working with Windows Remote Shell (WinRS)      120

Configuring WinRM and WinRS Settings Through Group Policy     122

Summary     125

 

Part II     Using PowerShell

6     The PowerShell Language     129

Expressions and Operators     129

Expressions     130

Operators     130

Escape Sequences     143

Error Handling     145

Methods for Handling Errors in PowerShell     146

Managing Elements with Arrays     151

Creating Functions     157

Understanding Filters     163

Controlling Script Flow with Loops     164

Using Logic and Making Decisions     167

Building Scripts with Scriptblocks     170

Summary     172

 

7     PowerShell and Strings     173

System.String     173

[String] Type Accelerator     174

Select-String Cmdlet     175

Simple Operations     177

System.String Members     178

Contains Method     180

EndsWith Method     180

Insert Method     181

Remove Method     181

Replace Method     182

Split Method     182

StartsWith Method     182

SubString Method     183

ToLower Method     183

ToString Method     183

ToUpper Method     184

Trim Method     184

Length Property     185

Wildcards    

Comparison Operators     190

Regular Expressions     191

Match/NotMatch Comparison Operator     191

Replace Operators     192

[RegEx] Type Accelerator     193

2.0 CTP: Join and Split     194

Join Operator     194

Split Operator     195

Format Operator     195

Summary     196

 

8     PowerShell and the File System     197

Core Cmdlets     197

Navigating the File System     198

Get-Location Cmdlet     198

Set-Location Cmdlet     198

Push-Location Cmdlet     199

Pop-Location Cmdlet     199

Managing Drives     200

Adding a Drive     200

Removing a Drive     200

Removing a Drive     201

Managing Folders     201

Adding a Folder     201

Removing a Folder     202

Moving a Folder     202

Renaming a Folder     203

Testing for a Folder     204

Managing Files     205

Creating a File     205

Removing a File     205

Moving a File     206

Renaming a File     206

Getting the Content of a File     206

Setting the Content of a File     206

Appending Content to a File     207

Searching for Content in a File     207

Testing for a File     208

Working with XML Files     208

Creating an XML File     209

Appending an XML File     210

Modifying an XML File     211

Deleting from an XML File     212

Loading an XML File     212

Processing an XML File     213

Using Import-CliXml and Export-CliXml     213

Working with CSV Files     214

Writing to a CSV File     216

Scenario: Automating File System Management     216

Summary     225

 

9     PowerShell and Permissions     227

WSH and Permissions     227

SubInACL Functions     228

PowerShell and Permissions     231

PowerShell Functions     233

Summary     238

 

10     PowerShell and the Registry     239

Registry Management in PowerShell     239

Adding Other Hives     242

Registry Transactions     243

Getting Started     243

New Cmdlets     244

How It Works     245

Example: Starting and Committing a Transaction     245

Example: Starting and Undoing a Transaction     247

Example: Performing a Transaction That Has Errors     248

Simplifying Registry Management     249

The LibraryRegistry.ps1 Script     249

Using 2.0 CTP Features     262

Scenario Details     262

Running the Commands     263

Cleaning Up     264

Summary     265

 

11     PowerShell and WMI     267

Comparing WMI Usage Between WSH and PowerShell     269

Using WMI in WSH     269

Using WMI in PowerShell     271

Working with WMI     274

The PowerShell WMI Explorer     278

Understanding Providers     278

Understanding WQL     278

PowerShell 2.0 Changes     280

AuthenticationLevel and ImpersonationLevel     280

Set-WMIInstance Cmdlet     282

Invoke-WMIMethod Cmdlet     283

Remove-WMIObject Cmdlet     284

Scripting Scenario: MonitorMSVS.ps1     285

Summary     291

 

12     PowerShell Scripting Best Practices     293

PowerShell Configuration and Usage Recommendations     293

Digitally Sign PowerShell Scripts and Configuration Files     294

Never Set Execution Policies to Unrestricted     294

Try to Run Scripts with the Minimum Required Rights     294

Centrally Manage PowerShell Remoting Security Settings in Your Enterprise     295

Script Development     295

Treat Scripting Projects as Actual Projects     295

Use a Development Life Cycle Model     296

Design and Prototype Your Scripts by Using Pseudocode     297

Gather Script Requirements Effectively     297

Don’t Develop Scripts in a Production Environment     297

Test, Test, Test     298

Keep Your Scripts Professional     298

Script Design     299

Put Configuration Information at the Beginning of Scripts     299

Use Comments     300

Avoid Hard-Coding Configuration Information     300

When Necessary, Use Variables in One Place     301

Provide Instructions     301

Perform Validity Checking on Required Parameters     302

Make Scripts and Functions Reusable     303

Use Descriptive Names Rather Than Aliases     303

Provide Status Information for Script Users     304

Use the WhatIf and Confirm Parameters     305

Standards for Scripting     306

This Book’s Scripting Standards     307

PowerShell Community Scripting Standards     308

Summary     311

 

Part III     Managing Microsoft Technologies with PowerShell

13     PowerShell as a Management Interface     315

Getting Started     315

Definitions     316

The PowerShell SDK     316

Installation Instructions     317

Creating a Custom Cmdlet     320

Naming Conventions     320

Setting Up a Project     321

Writing the Code     322

Creating a Custom Snap-In     323

Creating Custom Parameters     327

Advanced Parameter Functionality     329

Arrays     329

Position     330

Mandatory     331

HelpMessage     331

Alias     332

Input Validation     332

ValidateLength     332

ValidateRange     333

ValidatePattern     333

ValidateSet     334

ValidateCount     334

Supporting Get-Help     335

Header     335

Name and Synopsis     335

Syntax     336

Detailed Description     337

Parameters     337

Input Type     338

Return Type     338

Notes     338

Related Links     339

Output     340

Runspaces     341

Scenario: Geocoding in MMC 3.0     344

Get-Coordinates Cmdlet     344

Get-Coordinates User Control     347

Get-Coordinates MMC     349

Summary     352

 

14     PowerShell and Active Directory     353

Understanding the Interfaces     353

Managing Active Directory Using WSH     355

Managing Active Directory Using PowerShell     356

Managing Objects     361

Binding     361

Working with Objects     363

Examples     365

Searching for Objects     367

SearchRoot     367

Filter     367

SearchScope     371

PageSize     371

SizeLimit     371

PropertiesToLoad     372

Putting It All Together     372

Scripting Scenario: ChangeLocalAdminPassword.ps1     373

Summary     386

 

15     PowerShell and Exchange Server 2007     387

Accessing the Exchange Management Shell (EMS)      388

Using the Exchange Management Shell     389

Working with Servers     390

Working with Storage Groups     391

Working with Databases     392

Working with Recipients     394

Scripting Scenario: GetDatabaseSizeReport.ps1     397

Scripting Scenario: GetEvent1221Info.ps1     406

Scripting Scenario: ProvisionExchangeUsers.ps1     416

Summary     423

 

16     PowerShell and System Center Operations Manager 2007     425

Operations Manager PowerShell Integration     425

The Command Shell     426

The Object Tree     427

Getting Help     431

Operations Manager 2007 PowerShell Scripts     432

Agent Cmdlets     432

get-Agent     432

install-agent     434

uninstall-agent     435

Task Cmdlets     436

get-Task     437

start-Task     438

get-TaskResult     439

Management Server Cmdlets     441

get-ManagementServer     441

set-ManagementServer     442

get-DefaultSetting     443

set-DefaultSetting     444

Default Setting Paths     445

Maintenance Mode Cmdlets     447

new-MaintenanceWindow     448

get-MaintenanceWindow     449

set-MaintenanceWindow     451

Comprehensive Operations Manager Cmdlet List     452

Get/Set Cmdlets     452

Add/Remove Cmdlets     454

Enable/Disable Cmdlets     455

Install/Uninstall Cmdlets     455

Various Cmdlets     455

Summary     456

 

17     PowerShell 2.0 Features     457

Remoting     458

Understanding Remoting     459

Executing Commands on a Remote Machine     460

Background Jobs     466

Graphical PowerShell     468

Script Cmdlets     469

Out-GridView Cmdlet     471

Script Internationalization     472

DATA Sections     473

Modules     475

Script Debugging     475

Summary     477

 

A     The PSShell.ps1 Script     479

Component One: Shell Replacement     480

Step One: Creating the PSShell Secure Kiosk GPO     481

Step Two: Configuring the Windows Shell Replacement Settings     481

Component Two: PSShell.exe     482

Component Three: PSShell.ps1     484

Putting It All Together     489

 

Index     491

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ISBN-13: 978-0-13-264997-1

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