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World, The: A History, Combined Volume, CourseSmart eTextbook, 2nd Edition

By Felipe Fernandez-Armesto

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Feb 6, 2009

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Description

The World interweaves two stories–of our interactions with nature and with each other. The environment-centered story is about humans distancing themselves from the rest of nature and searching for a relationship that strikes a balance between constructive and destructive exploitation. The culture-centered story is of how human cultures have become mutually influential and yet mutually differentiating. Both stories have been going on for thousands of years. We do not know whether they will end in triumph or disaster.

 

There is no prospect of covering all of world history in one book. Rather, the fabric of this book is woven from selected strands. Readers will see these at every turn, twisted together into yarn, stretched into stories. Human-focused historical ecology–the environmental theme–will drive readers back, again and again, to the same concepts: sustenance, shelter, disease, energy, technology, art. (The last is a vital category for historians, not only because it is part of our interface with the rest of the world, but also because it forms a record of how we see reality and of how the way we see it changes.) In the global story of human interactions–the cultural theme–we return constantly to the ways people make contact with each another: migration, trade, war, imperialism, pilgrimage, gift exchange, diplomacy, travel–and to their social frameworks: the economic and political arenas, the human groups and groupings, the states and civilizations, the sexes and generations, the classes and clusters of identity.

Table of Contents

Brief Contents

Contents

Maps

Special Features

Getting the Most Out of the Maps in The World

About Felipe Fernández-Armesto

From the Author to the Reader

Introducing The World

Acknowledgments

A Note on Dates and Spelling

 

Part 1: Foragers and Farmers, to 5000 B.C.E.

 

Chapter 1: Out of the Ice: Peopling the Earth

SO YOU THINK YOU’RE HUMAN?

    Human Evolution

OUT OF AFRICA

    Peopling the Old World

    Migration, Population, and Social Change

THE LAST GREAT ICE AGE

    Ice-Age Hunters

    Ice-Age Art

    Ice-Age Culture and Society

    Peopling the New World

SURVIVAL OF THE FORAGERS

IN PERSPECTIVE: After the Ice

 

Chapter 2: Out of the Mud: Farming and Herding after the Ice Age

THE PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURE

    A Case in Point: Aboriginal Australians

    Preagricultural Settlements

    The Disadvantages of Farming

HUSBANDRY IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS

    Herders’ Environments

    Tillers’ Environments

THE SPREAD OF AGRICULTURE

    Europe

    Asia

    The Americas

    Africa

    The Pacific Islands

SO WHY DID FARMING START?

    Population Pressure

    The Outcome of Abundance

    The Power of Politics

    Cult Agriculture

    Climatic Instability

    Agriculture by Accident

    Production As an Outgrowth of Procurement

    A Conservative Revolution?

IN PERSPECTIVE: Seeking Stability

PART 1: THE BIG PICTURE—THE WORLD IN 5000 B.C.E.

 

Part 2: Farmers and Builders, 5000 to 500 B.C.E.

 

Chapter 3: The Great River Valleys: Accelerating Change and Developing States

GROWING COMMUNITIES, DIVERGENT CULTURES

    Intensified Settlement and Its Effects

THE ECOLOGY OF CIVILIZATION

THE GREAT FLOODPLAINS

    The Ecology of Egypt

    Shifting Rivers of the Indus Valley

    Fierce Nature in Early Mesopotamia

    The Good Earth of Early China

CONFIGURATIONS OF SOCIETY

    Patterns of Settlement and Labor

    Politics

    The Egyptian State

    Statecraft in Mesopotamia

    The First Documented Chinese State

    Ruling the Harappan World

    The Politics of Expansion

    Literate Culture

IN PERSPECTIVE: What Made the Great River Valleys Different?

 

Chapter 4: A Succession of Civilizations: Ambition and Instability

THE GROWTH OF TRADE

    The Rise of the Hittites

    Fragility and Fall: The End of Hatti

INSTABILITY AND COLLAPSE IN THE AEGEAN

    Cretan Civilization

    Mycenean Civilization

A GENERAL CRISIS IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN WORLD?

    The Egyptian Experience

    The Roots of Instability

THE EXTINCTION OF HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION

    The Evidence of the Rig Veda

    The Environment of Stress

CONFLICT ON THE YELLOW RIVER

    The Rise of Zhou

    The Zhou Political System

STATE-BUILDING IN THE AMERICAS

    Andean Examples

    Developments in Mesoamerica

ASSESSING THE DAMAGE

    The Survival of Egypt

IN PERSPECTIVE: The Fatal Flaws

 

Chapter 5: Rebuilding the World: Recoveries, New Initiatives, and Their Limits

TRADE AND RECOVERY IN THE MIDDLE EAST

    The Phoenician Experience

    The Assyrian Empire

    The Babylonian Revival

GREECE AND BEYOND

    The Greek Environment

    Greek Colonialism

    Early Greek Society

    The Spread of State-Building and City-Building

EMPIRES AND RECOVERY IN CHINA AND SOUTH ASIA

    The Zhou Decline

    South Asia: Relocated Centers of Culture

    The Ganges Valley

    Building Anew in Sri Lanka

THE FRUSTRATIONS OF ISOLATION

    Developments in North America

    New Initiatives in Africa

IN PERSPECTIVE: The Framework of Recovery

PART 2: THE BIG PICTURE—THE WORLD IN 500 B.C.E.

 

Part 3: The Axial Age, from 500 B.C.E. to 100 C.E.

 

Chapter 6: The Great Schools

THE THINKERS OF THE AXIAL AGE

    The Jews

THE THOUGHTS OF THE AXIAL AGE

    Religious Thinking

    New Political Thinking

    Challenging Illusion

    Mathematics

    Reason

    Science

    Medicine

    Skepticism

THE STRUCTURES OF THE AXIAL AGE

IN PERSPECTIVE: The Reach of the Sages

 

Chapter 7: The Great Empires

ROUTES THAT DREW THE OLD WORLD TOGETHER

    The Sea Routes of the Indian Ocean

    Land Routes: The Silk Roads

THE FIRST EURASIAN EMPIRE: PERSIA

    The Persian Heartland

    Persian Government

    The Persian–Greek Wars

    The Empire of Alexander the Great

THE RISE OF ROME

    The Roman Frontiers

    Ruling the Empire

    Imperial Culture and Commerce

    The Celts

THE BEGINNINGS OF IMPERIALISM IN INDIA

    Government

    Asoka and His Mental World

CHINESE UNITY AND IMPERIALISM

    Unity Endangered and Saved

    The Menace from the Steppes

BEYOND THE EMPIRES

    Japan and Korea

    The Western Eurasian Steppe

    Mesoamerica

IN PERSPECTIVE: The Aftermath of the Axial Age

PART 3: THE BIG PICTURE—THE WORLD IN 100 C.E.

 

Part 4: Fitful Transitions, from the Third Century to the Tenth Century

 

Chapter 8: Postimperial Worlds: Problems of Empires in Eurasia and Africa, ca. 200 C.E. to ca. 700 C.E.

THE WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE AND ITS INVADERS

    Changes within the Roman Empire

    The “Barbarian” West

STEPPELANDERS AND THEIR VICTIMS

    China

    India

NEW FRONTIERS IN ASIA

    Korea

    Funan

THE RISE OF ETHIOPIA

THE CRISES OF THE SIXTH AND SEVENTH CENTURIES

JUSTINIAN AND THE EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE

THE NEW BARBARIANS

THE ARABS

    Islam

    The Arabs against Persia and Rome

THE MUSLIM WORLD

RECOVERY AND ITS LIMITS IN CHINA

    Rise of the Tang

    Empress Wu

    Tang Decline

IN THE SHADOW OF TANG: TIBET AND JAPAN

    Tibet

    Japan

IN PERSPECTIVE: The Triumph of Barbarism?

 

Chapter 9: The Rise of World Religions: Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism

COMMERCE AND CONFLICT: CARRIERS OF CREEDS

    In the Islamic World

    In Christendom

    In the Buddhist World

    Trade

    Manichaeanism and the Uighurs

    Christianity on the Silk Roads

    Islam on Trade Routes

MONARCHS AND MISSIONARIES

    Constantine

    Ezana

    Trdat Diplomatic Conversions

    Buddhist Politics

    Korea

    Japan

    Tibet

    India

    The Margins of Christendom

    Vladimir and the Rus

    Islam and the Turks

TRICKLE DOWN: CHRISTIANIZATION AND ISLAMIZATION

RELIGIOUS LIVES: THE WORLD OF MONKS AND NUNS

    Christian Monasticism

    Buddhist Monks

    Sufism

    Religious Women

IN PERSPECTIVE: The Triumphs of the Potential World Religions

 

Chapter 10: Remaking the World: Innovation and Renewal on Environmental Frontiers in the Late First Millennium

ISOLATION AND INITIATIVE: SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA AND THE AMERICAS

    African Geography

    American Geography

    The Maize Frontiers

THE ISLAMIC WORLD AND THE ENVIRONMENT

FRONTIER GROWTH IN JAPAN

CHINA AND SOUTHEAST ASIA

THE PACIFIC

THE FRONTIERS OF CHRISTENDOM

IN PERSPECTIVE: The Limits of Divergence

PART 4: THE BIG PICTURE—THE WORLD IN 1000 C.E.

 

Part 5: Contacts and Conflicts, 1000 C.E. to 1200 C.E.

 

Chapter 11: Contending with Isolation: ca. 1000–1200

AMERICAN DEVELOPMENTS: FROM THE ARCTIC TO MESOAMERICA

    Greenland and the North

    The North American Southwest and the Mississippi Region

    Mesoamerica

AROUND THE INDIAN OCEAN: ETHIOPIA, THE KHMER, AND INDIA

    East Africa: The Ethiopian Empire

    Southeast Asia: The Khmer Kingdom

    India: Economy and Culture

    India: The Chola Kingdom

EURASIA’S EXTREMITIES: JAPAN AND WESTERN EUROPE

    Japan

    Western Europe: Economics and Politics

    Western Europe: Religion and Culture

IN PERSPECTIVE: The Patchwork of Effects

 

Chapter 12: The Nomadic Frontiers: The Islamic World, Byzantium, and China ca. 1000–1200

THE ISLAMIC WORLD AND ITS NEIGHBORS

    The Coming of the Steppelanders

    The Crusades

    The Invaders from the Sahara

    The Progress of Sufism

THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE AND ITS NEIGHBORS

    Byzantium and the Barbarians

    Basil II

    The Era of Difficulties

    Byzantium and the Crusaders

    Byzantine Art and Learning

CHINA AND THE NORTHERN BARBARIANS

    The End of the Tang Dynasty

    The Rise of the Song and the Barbarian Conquests

    Economy and Society Under the Song

    Song Art and Learning

IN PERSPECTIVE: Cains and Abels

PART 5: THE BIG PICTURE—THE WORLD IN 1200 C.E.

 

Part 6: The Crucible: The Eurasian Crises of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries

 

Chapter 13: The World the Mongols Made

THE MONGOLS: RESHAPING EURASIA

    Genghis Khan

    The Mongol Steppe

THE MONGOL WORLD BEYOND THE STEPPES: THE SILK ROADS, CHINA, PERSIA, AND RUSSIA

    China

    Persia

    Russia

THE LIMITS OF CONQUEST: MAMLUK EGYPT AND MUSLIM INDIA

    Mamluk Egypt

    Muslim India: The Delhi Sultanate

EUROPE

IN PERSPECTIVE: The Uniqueness of the Mongols

 

Chapter 14: The Revenge of Nature: Plague, Cold, and the Limits of Disaster in the Fourteenth Century

CLIMATE CHANGE

THE COMING OF THE AGE OF PLAGUE

    The Course and Impact of Plague

    Moral and Social Effects

    Medicine and Morals

    The Jews

    Distribution of Wealth

    Peasant Millenarianism

THE LIMITS OF DISASTER: BEYOND THE PLAGUE ZONE

    India

    Southeast Asia

    Japan

    Mali

THE PACIFIC: SOCIETIES OF ISOLATION

    Easter Island

    New Zealand

    Ozette

    Chan Chan

IN PERSPECTIVE: The Aftershock

 

Chapter 15: Expanding Worlds: Recovery in the Late Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries

FRAGILE EMPIRES IN AFRICA

    East Africa

    West Africa

ECOLOGICAL IMPERIALISM IN THE AMERICAS

    The Inca Empire

    The Aztec Empire

NEW EURASIAN EMPIRES

    The Russian Empire

    Timurids and the Ottoman Empire

THE LIMITATIONS OF CHINESE IMPERIALISM

THE BEGINNINGS OF OCEANIC IMPERIALISM

THE EUROPEAN OUTLOOK: PROBLEMS AND PROMISE

IN PERSPECTIVE: Beyond Empires

PART 6: THE BIG PICTURE—THE WORLD IN 1491

 

Part 7: Convergence and Divergence, to ca. 1700

 

Chapter 16: Imperial Arenas: New Empires in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

MARITIME EMPIRES: PORTUGAL, JAPAN, AND THE DUTCH

    The Portuguese Example

    Asian Examples

    The Dutch Connection

LAND EMPIRES: RUSSIA, CHINA, MUGHAL INDIA, AND THE OTTOMANS

    China

    The Mughal Example in India

    The Ottomans

NEW LAND EMPIRES IN THE AMERICAS

    Making the New Empires Work

IN PERSPECTIVE: The global Balance of Trade

 

Chapter 17: The Ecological Revolution of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

THE ECOLOGICAL EXCHANGE: PLANTS AND ANIMALS

    Maize, Sweet Potatoes, and Potatoes

    Weeds, Grasses, and Livestock

    Cane Sugar

    Coffee, Tea, and Chocolate

    Patterns of Ecological Exchange

THE MICROBIAL EXCHANGE

    Demographic Collapse in the New World

    Plague and New Diseases in Eurasia

LABOR: HUMAN TRANSPLANTATIONS

WILD FRONTIERS: ENCROACHING SETTLEMENT

    Northern and Central Asia: The Waning of Steppeland Imperialism

    Pastoral Imperialism in Africa and the Americas

IMPERIALISM AND SETTLEMENT IN EUROPE AND ASIA

    China

    India

NEW EXPLOITATION IN THE AMERICAS

    The Spanish Empire

    Brazil

    British North America

HOME FRONTS IN EUROPE AND ASIA

    New Energy Sources

    Land Reclamation

FRONTIERS OF THE HUNT

IN PERSPECTIVE: Evolution Redirected

 

Chapter 18: Mental Revolutions: Religion and Science in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

CHRISTIANITY IN CHRISTENDOM

CHRISTIANITY BEYOND CHRISTENDOM: THE LIMITS OF SUCCESS

THE MISSIONARY WORLDS OF BUDDHISM AND ISLAM

    China and Japan

    The Mongols

    Islam

THE RESULTING MIX: GLOBAL RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY—AMERICAN AND INDIAN EXAMPLES

    Black America

    White America

    India

THE RENAISSANCE “DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD”

THE RISE OF WESTERN SCIENCE

WESTERN SCIENCE IN THE EAST

IN PERSPECTIVE: The Scales of Thought

 

Chapter 19: States and Societies: Political and Social Change in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

POLITICAL CHANGE IN EUROPE

WESTERN POLITICAL THOUGHT

WESTERN SOCIETY

THE OTTOMANS

MUGHAL INDIA AND SAFAVID PERSIA

CHINA

    Chinese Politics

    Chinese Society

TOKUGAWA JAPAN

THE NEW WORLD OF THE AMERICAS

AFRICA

IN PERSPECTIVE: Centuries of Upheaval

PART 7: THE BIG PICTURE—THE WORLD IN 1700

 

Part 8: Global Enlightenments, 1700–1800

 

Chapter 20: Driven by Growth: The Global Economy in the Eighteenth Century

POPULATION TRENDS

    Urbanization

    Explanations

    Medicine

    The Ecology of Disease

ECONOMIC TRENDS: CHINA, INDIA, AND THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE

    China

    India

    The Ottoman Empire and Its Environs

THE WEST’S PRODUCTIVITY LEAP

    The Scientific Background

    The British Example

THE EXPANSION OF RESOURCES

    Global Gardening

IN PERSPECTIVE: New Europes, New Departures

 

Chapter 21: The Age of Global Interaction: Expansion and Intersection of Eighteenth-Century Empires

ASIAN IMPERIALISM IN ARREST OR DECLINE: CHINA, PERSIA, AND THE OTTOMANS

    China

    The Asian Context

    Persia and the Ottoman Empire

IMPERIAL REVERSAL IN INDIA: MUGHAL ECLIPSE AND BRITISH RISE TO POWER

THE DUTCH EAST INDIES

THE BLACK ATLANTIC: AFRICA, THE AMERICAS, AND THE SLAVE TRADE

LAND EMPIRES OF THE NEW WORLD

    The Araucanos and the Sioux

    Portugal in Brazil

    Spanish America

    Creole Mentalities

    Toward Independence

IN PERSPECTIVE: The Rims of Empires

 

Chapter 22:The Exchange of Enlightenments: Eighteenth-Century Thought

THE CHARACTER OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT

THE ENLIGHTENMENT IN GLOBAL CONTEXT

    The Chinese Example

    Japan

    India

    The Islamic World

THE ENLIGHTENMENT’S EFFECTS IN ASIA

    The Enlightenment and China

    Western Science in Japan

    Korea and Southeast Asia

    The Ottomans

THE ENLIGHTENMENT IN EUROPE

    The Belief in Progress

    New Economic Thought

    Social Equality

    Anticlericalism

THE CRISIS OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT: RELIGION AND ROMANTICISM

    Religious Revival

    The Cult of Nature and Romanticism

    Rousseau and the General Will

    Pacific Discoveries

    Wild Children

    The Huron as Noble Savage

    The French Revolution And Napoleon

    Background to the Revolution

    Revolutionary Radicalism

    Napoleon

IN PERSPECTIVE: The Afterglow of Enlightenment

PART 8: THE BIG PICTURE—THE WORLD IN 1800

 

Part 9: The Frustrations of Progress, to ca. 1900

 

Chapter 23: Replacing Muscle: The Energy Revolutions

GLOBAL DEMOGRAPHICS: THE WORLD’S POPULATION RISES

FOOD: TRANSITION TO ABUNDANCE

ENERGY FOR POWER: MILITARIZATION AND INDUSTRIALIZATION

    Militarization

    Industrialization

INDUSTRIALIZING EUROPE

INDUSTRY IN THE AMERICAS

    Canada

    Latin America

JAPAN INDUSTRIALIZES

CHINA AND INDUSTRIALIZATION

INDIA AND EGYPT

IN PERSPECTIVE: Industrialization, Causes and Consequences

 

Chapter 24: The Social Mold: Work and Society in the Nineteenth Century

THE INDUSTRIALIZED ENVIRONMENT

    Palaces of Work: The Rise of Factories

    Critics of Industrialization: Gold from the Sewers

URBANIZATION

BEYOND INDUSTRY: AGRICULTURE AND MINING

CHANGING LABOR REGIMES

    Slavery and the Slave Trade

    Female and Child Labor

    Free Migrants

HUNTERS AND PASTORALISTS

ELITES TRANSFORMED

IN PERSPECTIVE: Cultural Exchange—Enhanced Pace, New Directions

 

Chapter 25: Western Dominance in the Nineteenth Century: The Westward Shift of Power and the Rise of Global Empires

THE OPIUM WARS

THE WHITE EMPIRES: RISE AND RESISTANCE

METHODS OF IMPERIAL RULE

BUSINESS IMPERIALISM

IMPERIALISM IN THE “NEW EUROPES”

EMPIRES ELSEWHERE: JAPAN, RUSSIA, AND THE UNITED STATES

    Japan

    Russia

    The United States

RATIONALES OF EMPIRE

    Doctrines of Superiority

    The Civilizing Mission

IN PERSPECTIVE: The Reach of Empires

 

Chapter 26: The Changing State: Political Developments in the Nineteenth Century

NATIONALISM

    Nationalism in Europe

    The Case of the Jews

    Nationalism beyond Europe

CONSTITUTIONALISM

CENTRALIZATION, MILITARIZATION, AND BUREAUCRATIZATION

    In and Around the Industrializing World

    Beyond the Industrializing World

RELIGION AND POLITICS

NEW FORMS OF POLITICAL RADICALISM

    Steps toward Democracy

    The Expansion of the Public Sphere

WESTERN SOCIAL THOUGHT

IN PERSPECTIVE: Global State-Building

PART 9: THE BIG PICTURE—THE WORLD IN 1914

 

Part 10: Chaos and Complexity: The World in the Twentieth Century

 

Chapter 27: The Twentieth-Century Mind: Western Science and the World

WESTERN SCIENCE ASCENDANT

    China

    India

    The Wider World

THE TRANSFORMATION OF WESTERN SCIENCE

    Physics

    Human Sciences

    Anthropology and Psychology

    Philosophy and Linguistics

THE MIRROR OF SCIENCE: ART

THE TURN OF THE WORLD

IN PERSPECTIVE: Science, Challenging and Challenged

 

Chapter 28: World Order and Disorder: Global Politics in the Twentieth

THE WORLD WAR ERA, 1914–1945

    World War I

    Postwar Disillusionment

    The Shift to Ideological Conflicts

    World War II

THE COLD WAR ERA, 1945–1991

    Superpower Confrontation

DECOLONIZATION

THE NEW WORLD ORDER

    The European Union

IN PERSPECTIVE: The Anvil of War

 

Chapter 29: The Pursuit of Utopia: Civil Society in the Twentieth Century

THE CONTEXT OF ATROCITIES

THE ENCROACHING STATE

UNPLANNING UTOPIA: THE TURN TOWARD INDIVIDUALISM

COUNTERCOLONIZATION AND SOCIAL CHANGE

GLOBALIZATION AND THE WORLD ECONOMY

CULTURE AND GLOBALIZATION

SECULARISM AND THE RELIGIOUS REVIVAL

IN PERSPECTIVE: The Century of Paradox

 

Chapter 30: The Embattled Biosphere: The Twentieth-Century Environment

FUEL RESOURCES

FOOD OUTPUT

URBANIZATION

THE CRISIS OF CONSERVATION

THE UNMANAGEABLE ENVIRONMENT: CLIMATE AND DISEASE

IN PERSPECTIVE: The Environmental Dilemma

PART 10: THE BIG PICTURE—THE WORLD IN 2015

 

Glossary

Credits

Notes

Index

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