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Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum, 12th Edition

By Laurence Behrens, Leonard J. Rosen

Published by Longman

Published Date: Sep 17, 2012

Description

Remaining one of the best-selling interdisciplinary composition texts for over twenty-five years, Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum helps readers  learn to write effectively for college.

Table of Contents

Preface for Instructors

 

A Note to the Student

 

PART I  How to Write Summaries, Critiques, Syntheses, and Analyses

 

Part One: Structures

Chapter 1—Summary, Paraphrase, and Quotation                     

What Is a Summary?                                                                                                                                                                   

Can a Summary Be Objective?                                                                                                                                                  

Using the Summary                                                                                                                                                                      

BOX: Where Do We Find Written Summaries?                                                                                                                  

The Reading Process                                                                                                                                                                   

BOX: Critical Reading for Summary                                                                                                                                      

How to Write Summaries                                                                                                                                                            

BOX: Guidelines for Writing Summaries                                                                                                                              

Demonstration: Summary                                                                                                                                                           

Will Your Job Be Exported?—Alan S. Blinder                                                     

Read, Reread, Highlight                                                                                                                                                          

Divide into Stages of Thought                                                                                                                                              

Write a Brief Summary of Each Stage of Thought

Write a Thesis: A Brief Summary of the Entire Passage                                                                                                    

Write the First Draft of the Summary                                                                                                                                    

Summary 1: Combine Thesis Sentence with Brief Section Summaries                                                                       

The Strategy of the Shorter Summary                                                                                                                                   

Summary 2: Combine Thesis Sentence, Section Summaries, and Carefully Chosen Details                                   

The Strategy of the Longer Summary                                                                                                                                   

How Long Should a Summary Be?                                                                                                                                            

Exercise 1.1: Individual and Collaborative Summary Practice                                                                                       

Summarizing Figures and Tables                                                                                                                                             

Bar Graphs                                                                                                                                                                                 

Exercise 1.2: Summarizing Graphs                                                                                                                                     

Pie Charts                                                                                                                                                                                  

Exercise 1.3: Summarizing Pie Charts                                                                                                                                

Line Graphs                                                                                                                                                                               

Exercise 1.4: Summarizing Line Graphs                                                                                                                             

Tables                                                                                                                                                                                        

Exercise 1.5: Summarizing Tables                                                                                                                                      

Paraphrase                                                                                                                                                                                     

BOX: How to Write Paraphrases                                                                                                                                           

Exercise 1.6: Paraphrasing                                                                                                                                                  

Quotations                                                                                                                                                                                      

Choosing Quotations                                                                                                                                                              

Quoting Memorable Language                                                                                                                                         

BOX: When to Quote                                                                                                                                                              

Quoting Clear and Concise Language                                                                                                                             

Quoting Authoritative Language                                                                                                                                     

Incorporating Quotations into Your Sentences                                                                                                                  

Quoting Only the Part of a Sentence or Paragraph That You Need                                                                           

Incorporating the Quotation into the Flow of Your Own Sentence                                                                            

Avoiding Freestanding Quotations                                                                                                                                 

Exercise 1.7: Incorporating Quotations                                                                                                                            

Using Ellipses                                                                                                                                                                      

Using Brackets to Add or Substitute Words                                                                                                                 

BOX: When to Summarize, Paraphrase, and Quote                                                                                                            

BOX: Incorporating Quotations into Your Sentences                                                                                                       

Exercise 1.8: Using Brackets                                                                                                                                              

Avoiding Plagiarism                                                                                                                                                                    

BOX: Rules for Avoiding Plagiarism                                                                                                                                     

Chapter 2—Critical Reading and Critique                                  

Critical Reading                                                                                                                                                                           

Question 1: To What Extent Does the Author Succeed in His or Her Purpose?                                                           

BOX: Where Do We Find Written Critiques?                                                                                                                     

Writing to Inform                                                                                                                                                                     

Evaluating Informative Writing                                                                                                                                        

Writing to Persuade                                                                                                                                                                 

Exercise 2.1: Informative and Persuasive Thesis Statements                                                                                       

Evaluating Persuasive Writing                                                                                                                                         

The Moon We Left Behind—Charles Krauthammer                                          

Exercise 2.2: Critical Reading Practice                                                                                                                              

Persuasive Strategies                                                                                                                                                         

Logical Argumentation: Avoiding Logical Fallacies                                                                                                     

BOX: Tone                                                                                                                                                                                

Exercise 2.3: Understanding Logical Fallacies                                                                                                                

Writing to Entertain                                                                                                                                                                 

Question 2: To What Extent Do You Agree with the Author?                                                                                         

Identify Points of Agreement and Disagreement                                                                                                          

Exercise 2.4: Exploring Your Viewpoints—in Three Paragraphs                                                                                  

Explore the Reasons for Agreement and Disagreement: Evaluate Assumptions                                                     

Inferring and Implying Assumptions                                                                                                                              

An Example of Hidden Assumptions from the World of Finance                                                                               

Critique                                                                                                                                                                                          

How to Write Critiques                                                                                                                                                           

BOX: Guidelines for Writing Critiques                                                                                                                                 

Demonstration: Critique                                                                                                                                                             

To What Extent Does the Author Succeed in His or Her Purpose?                                                                                

To What Extent Do You Agree with the Author? Evaluate Assumptions                                                                     

Model Critique: A Critique of Charles Krauthammer’s “The Moon We Left Behind”—Andrew Harlan                  

Exercise 2.5: Informal Critique of the Model Critique                                                                                                     

BOX: Critical Reading for Critique                                                                                                                                         

The Strategy of the Critique                                                                                                                                                   

Chapter 3—Thesis, Introduction, Conclusion

Writing a Thesis   

The Components of a Thesis   

Making an Assertion   

Starting with a Working Thesis   

Using the Thesis to Plan a Structure   

BOX: How Ambitious Should Your Thesis Be?   

EXERCISE 3.1: Drafting Thesis Statements   

Introductions   

Quotation   

Historical Review   

Review of a Controversy   

From the General to the Specific   

Anecdote and Illustration: From the Specific to the General   

Question   

Statement of Thesis   

EXERCISE 3.2: Drafting Introductions   

Conclusions   

Statement of the Subject’s Significance   

Call for Further Research   

Solution/Recommendation   

Anecdote   

Quotation   

Question   

Speculation   

EXERCISE 3.3: Drafting Conclusions   

Chapter 4—Explanatory Synthesis                                            

What Is a Synthesis?                                                                                                                                                                   

Summary and Critique as a Basis for Synthesis                                                                                                             

Inference: Moving Beyond Summary and Critique                                                                                                       

Purpose                                                                                                                                                                                           

Example: Same Sources, Different Uses                                                                                                                          

BOX: Where Do We Find Written Syntheses?                                                                                                                   

Using Your Sources                                                                                                                                                                     

Types of Syntheses: Explanatory and Argument                                                                                                                    

Explanation: News Article from the New York Times                                                                                                    

While Warning About Fat, U.S. Pushes Cheese Sales—Michael Moss         

Argument: Editorial from the Boston Globe                                                                                                                   

Got Too Much Cheese?—Derrick Z. Jackson                                                           

What Are Genetically Modified (GM) Foods?                                                                                                               

Genetically Modified Foods and Organisms—The United States Department of Energy              

Why a GM Freeze?—The GM Freeze Campaign                                                       

How to Write Syntheses                                                                                                                                                              

BOX: Guidelines for Writing Syntheses                                                                                                                               

The Explanatory Synthesis                                                                                                                                                         

Demonstration: Explanatory Synthesis—Going Up? An Elevator Ride to Space                                                             

Exercise 4.1: Exploring the Topic                                                                                                                                       

The History of the Space Elevator—P. K. Aravind                                            

Applications of the Space Elevator—Bradley C. Edwards                           

Going Up—Brad Lemley                                                                                                   

Why We Need a Space Elevator—Cathy Swan and Peter Swan                  

Consider Your Purpose                                                                                                                                                           

Exercise 4.2: Critical Reading for Synthesis                                                                                                                     

Formulate a Thesis                                                                                                                                                                   

Decide How You Will Use Your Source Material                                                                                                               

Develop an Organizational Plan                                                                                                                                             

Summary Statements                                                                                                                                                               

Write the Topic Sentences                                                                                                                                                     

BOX: Organize a Synthesis by Idea, Not by Source                                                                                                          

Write Your Synthesis                                                                                                                                                              

Explanatory Synthesis: First Draft                                                                                                                                           

Revise Your Synthesis: Global, Local, and Surface Revisions                                                                                         

Revising the First Draft: Highlights                                                                                                                                      

Exercise 4.3: Revising the Explanatory Synthesis                                                                                                          

Model Explanatory Synthesis: Going Up? An Elevator Ride to Space—Sheldon Kearney                                        

BOX: Critical Reading for Synthesis                                                                                                                                     

Chapter 5—Argument Synthesis                                               

What Is an Argument Synthesis?                                                                                                                                             

The Elements of Argument: Claim, Support, and Assumption                                                                                         

Exercise 5.1: Practicing Claim, Support, and Assumption                                                                                             

The Three Appeals of Argument: Logos, Ethos, Pathos                                                                                                  

Logos                                                                                                                                                                                    

Exercise 5.2: Using Deductive and Inductive Logic                                                                                                       

Ethos                                                                                                                                                                                     

Exercise 5.3: Using Ethos                                                                                                                                                   

Pathos                                                                                                                                                                                   

Exercise 5.4: Using Pathos                                                                                                                                                 

The Limits of Argument                                                                                                                                                          

Fruitful Topics for Argument                                                                                                                                            

Demonstration: Developing an Argument Synthesis—Balancing Privacy and Safety in the Wake of Virginia Tech             

Mass Shootings at Virginia Tech, April 16, 2007: Report of the Review Panel        

Laws Limit Schools Even After Alarms—Jeff Gammage and Stacey Burling        

Perilous Privacy at Virginia Tech—Christian Science Monitor                     

Colleges Are Watching Troubled Students—Jeffrey McMurray             

Campus Stabbing Victim Sues UC Regents—Larry Gordon                               

Virginia Tech Massacre Has Altered Campus Mental Health Systems—Associated Press             

The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)                               

Exercise 5.5: Critical Reading for Synthesis                                                                                                                     

Consider Your Purpose                                                                                                                                                           

Making a Claim: Formulate a Thesis                                                                                                                                     

Decide How You Will Use Your Source Material                                                                                                               

Develop an Organizational Plan                                                                                                                                             

Formulate an Argument Strategy                                                                                                                                          

Draft and Revise Your Synthesis                                                                                                                                          

Model Argument Synthesis: Balancing Privacy and Safety in the Wake of Virginia Tech—David Harrison        

The Strategy of the Argument Synthesis                                                                                                                            

Developing and Organizing the Support for Your Arguments                                                                                            

Summarize, Paraphrase, and Quote Supporting Evidence                                                                                                 

Provide Various Types of Evidence and Motivational Appeals                                                                                      

Use Climactic Order                                                                                                                                                                 

Use Logical or Conventional Order                                                                                                                                       

Present and Respond to Counterarguments                                                                                                                        

Use Concession                                                                                                                                                                       

BOX: Developing and Organizing Support for Your Arguments                                                                                     

Avoid Common Fallacies in Developing and Using Support                                                                                           

The Comparison-and-Contrast Synthesis                                                                                                                                

Organizing Comparison-and-Contrast Syntheses                                                                                                              

Organizing by Source or Subject                                                                                                                                      

Organizing by Criteria                                                                                                                                                        

Exercise 5.6: Comparing and Contrasting                                                                                                                        

A Case for Comparison-and-Contrast: World War I and World War II                                                                          

Comparison-and-Contrast Organized by Criteria                                                                                                           

Model Exam Response                                                                                                                                                            

The Strategy of the Exam Response                                                                                                                                     

Summary of Synthesis Chapters                                                                                                                                               

Chapter 6—Analysis                                                                

What Is an Analysis?                                                                                                                                                                   

BOX: Where Do We Find Written Analyses?                                                                                                                    

How to Write Analyses                                                                                                                                                                

The Plug-In Drug—Marie Winn                                                                                    

Exercise 6.1: Reading Critically: Winn                                                                                                                              

Locate and Apply an Analytic Tool                                                                                                                                     

Locate an Analytic Tool                                                                                                                                                    

Apply the Analytic Tool                                                                                                                                                   

Analysis Across the Curriculum                                                                                                                                      

BOX: Guidelines for Writing Analyses                                                                                                                                

Formulate a Thesis                                                                                                                                                                   

Develop an Organizational Plan                                                                                                                                             

Turning Key Elements of a Principle or a Definition into Questions                                                                          

Developing the Paragraph-by-Paragraph Logic of Your Paper                                                                                   

Draft and Revise Your Analysis                                                                                                                                            

Write an Analysis, Not a Summary                                                                                                                                  

Make Your Analysis Systematic                                                                                                                                      

Answer the “So What?” Question                                                                                                                                  

Attribute Sources Appropriately                                                                                                                                     

BOX: Critical Reading for Analysis                                                                                                                                       

When Your Perspective Guides the Analysis                                                                                                                     

Demonstration: Analysis                                                                                                                                                            

Model Analysis: The Case of the Missing Kidney: An Analysis of Rumor—Linda Shanker                                    

Exercise 6.2: Informal Analysis of the Model Analysis                                                                                                 

The Strategy of the Analysis

 

PART II  Brief Takes

 

CHAPTER 7

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Toward An Intelligence Beyond Man’s—Robert Jastrow

The AI Revolution Is On—Steven Levy   

2045: The Year Man Becomes Immortal—Lev Grossman  Computer Wins on ‘Jeopardy!’: Trivial, It’s Not—John Markoff

Watson Doesn’t Know It Won On ‘Jeopardy!’—John Searle 

What Did Watson the Computer Do?—Stanley Fish

Watson is Far From Elementary—Stephan Baker

  CHAPTER 8

FAIRY TALES: A CLOSER LOOK AT “CINDERELLA”

AN INTRODUCTION TO FAIRY TALES—Maria Tatar

SEVEN VARIANTS OF “CINDERELLA”

CINDERELLA—Charles Perrault

ASHPUTTLE—Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm

A CHINESE “CINDERELLA”—Tuan Ch’êng-shih

THE MAIDEN, THE FROG, AND THE CHIEF’S SON—(AN AFRICAN “CINDERELLA”)

OOCHIGEASKW—THE ROUGH-FACED GIRL—(A NATIVE AMERICAN “CINDERELLA”)

WALT DISNEY’S “CINDERELLA”—Adapted by Campbell Grant

CINDERELLA—Anne Sexton

 

CHAPTER 9

THE ROAR OF THE TIGER MOM

Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior—Amy Chua

Mother Inferior—Hanna Rosin

Tiger Daughter—Bill Powell

Amy Chua is a Wimp—David Brooks

In the Eye of the Tiger—Meghan Daum

Tiger Mom vs. Tiger Mailroom—Patrick Goldstein

America’s Top Parent—Elizabeth Kolbert

The Roar of the Tiger Mom—Annie Murphy Paul

In Defense of Being a Kid—James Bernard Murphy

 

PART III  An Anthology of Readings

 

ECONOMICS

Chapter 10  

 

The Changing Landscape of Work in the Twenty-first Century    

 

PROSPECTS FOR GRADUATES

A Post-College Flow Chart of Misery and Pain—Jenna Brager                          

Many with New College Degree Find Job Market Humbling—Catherine Rampell

Job Outlook for College Graduates Slowly Improving—Lacey Johnson                          

 

DATA ON THE JOB MARKET

Not All College Degrees are Created Equal—Anthony P. Carnevale, Ban Cheah, and Jeff Strohl Employment Projections: 2010-2020 Summary—Bureau of Labor Statistics 

 

WORK AND IDENTITY

No Long Term: New Work and the Corrosion of Character—Richard Sennett 

An Inquiry into the Value of Work—Matthew B. Crawford

 

TRENDS AFFECTING WORK

Work and Workers in the 21st Century—Richard W. Judy and Carol D’Amico

Marking it in America—Adam Davidson 

The Untouchables—Thomas Friedman

Will Your Job Be Exported?—Alan S. Blinder

Is Your Job an Endangered Species?—Andy Kessler

Degrees and Dollars—Paul Krugman

Synthesis Activities

Research Activities

 

 

SOCIOLOGY

 

Chapter 11        

Have You Heard This?  The Latest on Rumor

THE GOSSIPS—Norman Rockwell 

RUMOR: A BRIEF CATALOG OF REFLECTIONS AND DEFINITIONS

TASTES LIKE CHICKEN—Snopes.com 

TRUTH IS IN THE EAR OF THE BEHOLDER—Gregory Rodriguez

WHAT COST CHRIS DUSSOLD HIS DREAM JOB?—Thomas Bartlett

FIGHTING THAT OLD DEVIL RUMOR—Sandra Salmans

A PSYCHOLOGY OF RUMOR—Robert H. Knapp

“PAUL IS DEAD!” (SAID FRED)—Alan Glenn

POLITICAL SMEAR RUMORS: TWO CASE STUDIES

THE ANATOMY OF A SMEAR CAMPAIGN: THE CASE OF JOHN McCAIN—Richard H. Davis

IN UNTRUTHS ABOUT OBAMA, ECHOES OF A DISTANT TIME—Samuel G. Freedman

RUMOR CASCADES AND GROUP POLARIZATION—Cass R. Sunstein

HOW RUMORS HELP US MAKE SENSE OF AN UNCERTAIN WORLD—Nicholas DiFonzo

MANAGING RUMORS—John Doorley and Helio Fred Garcia

THE RUMOR—John Updike

 

Synthesis Activities

Research Activities

 

Philosophy

 

Chapter 12

The Pursuit of Happiness

Pig Happiness?—Lynne McFall

In Pursuit of Happiness—Mark Kingwell 

A Balanced Psychology and a Full Life—Martin E. P. Seligman

Some Dark Thoughts on Happiness—Jennifer Senior

Flow—Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

If Money doesn’t Make You Happy, Then You Probably Aren’t Spending It Right—Elizabeth W. Dunn, Daniel T. Gilbert, and Timothy D. Wilson

The Hippies Were Right All Along About Happiness—Andrew Oswald

David Cameron Aims to Make Happiness the New GDP—Allegra Stratton.  

Happiness in Business? Priceless—Chip Conley

Happy Like God—Simon Critchley

A Critique of Positive Psychology—Richard Schoch

Happiness: Enough Already—Sharon Begley

Happiness—Jane Kenyon

The Good Life—Yi-Fu Tuan

From Zen and the art of Motorcycle Maintenance— Robert Pirsig

 

Synthesis Activities

Research Activities

 

 

 

ENVIRONMENT/PUBLIC POLICY

 

Chapter 13         

Green Power     

                

205 EASY WAYS TO SAVE THE EARTH—Thomas Friedman

NATIONAL SECURITY CONSEQUENCES OF U.S. OIL DEPENDANCE--Report of an Independent Task Force

THE DANGEROUS DELUSIONS OF ENERGY INDEPENDENCE--Robert Bryce 

 

A DEBATE ON THE FUTURE OF NUCLEAR POWER, POST-FUKUSHIMA

THE FUTURE OF NUKES, AND OF JAPAN—Holman W. Jenkins, Jr.

NO FAIL SAFE OPTION—Eugene Robinson

WHY I STILL SUPPORT NUCLEAR POWER, EVEN AFTER FUKUSHIMA—William Tucker

IF THE JAPANESE CAN’T BUILD A SAFE REACTOR, WHO CAN?—Anne Applebaum

WHY NUCLEAR POWER IS STILL A GOOD CHOICE—Marl Lynas

 

SOLAR POWER  

STATE SOLAR POWER PLANS ARE AS BIG AS ALL OUTDOORS—Marla Dickerson 

HERE COMES THE SUN—Paul Krugman

SOLAR IS GETTING CHEAPER, BUT HOW FAR CAN IT GO?—Brad Plumer

 

 WIND POWER

THE ISLAND IN THE WIND—Elizabeth Kolbert 

WIND POWER PUFFERY—H. Sterling Burnett 

 

ELECTRIC CARS

THE GREAT ELECTRIC CAR EXPERIMENT—Daniel Yergin

WHY THE GASOLINE ENGINE ISN’T GOING AWAY ANY TIME SOON—Joseph B. White 

 

Synthesis Activities

Research Activities

 

Business

Chapter 14       

New and Improved: Six Decades of Advertising   

Advertising’s Fifteen Basic Appeals—Jib Fowles

Making the Pitch in Print Advertising—Courtland Bovée, John V. Thill, George P. Dovel, Marian Burk Wood

Selling Happiness: Two Scenes from Mad Men—Matt Weiner

A Portfolio of Print Advertisements   

A Portfolio of TV Commercials   

 

Synthesis Activities   

Research Activities   

 

PSYCHOLOGY

OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY

CHAPTER 15

Disobedience as a Psychological and Moral Problem—Erich Fromm  

The Power of Situations—Lee Ross and Richard E. Nisbett

The Perils of Obedience—Stanley Milgram   

Replicating Milgram: Would People Still Obey Today?—Jerry M. Burger   

The Power Trip—Jonah Lehrer

Group Minds—Doris Lessing   

Opinions and Social Pressure—Solomon E. Asch   

The Stanford Prison Experiment—Philip G. Zimbardo   

From Atonement (a novel)—Ian McEwan   

 

Synthesis Activities   

Research Activities   

Credits   

Index   

Quick Indexes  
                                                                                                                               

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