Writing Arguments: A Rhetoric with Readings, Concise Edition [RENTAL EDITION], 8th Edition

By John D. Ramage, John C. Bean, June Johnson

Published by Pearson

Published Date: Feb 26, 2018

Description

This print textbook is available for students to rent for their classes. The Pearson print rental program provides students with affordable access to learning materials, so they come to class ready to succeed. 


For courses in Argument and Research.


Argument through problem solving

Writing Arguments: A Rhetoric with ReadingsConcise Edition, has sustained its reputation as a leader in argumentation through 10 editions, and that’s no coincidence. Authors Ramage, Bean, and Johnson present argument as a process of inquiry and a means of persuasion — not as a pro/con debate with winners and losers. This, in turn, promotes the essential critical-thinking skills needed for writing effective arguments.


In the 8th Edition, you’ll continue to find all the signature strengths — major assignment chapters that focus on one or two stases; discussion prompts and end-of-chapter writing assignments that reinforce concepts; comprehensive coverage of research and documentation; and a logical, yet flexible, approach. But now, you’ll also find a book that promises to increase understanding of the value of argument and help them negotiate the rhetorical divisiveness in today’s world.



Table of Contents

I. PRINCIPLES OF ARGUMENT 


1. Argument: An Introduction 

What Do We Mean by Argument? 

    Argument Is Not a Fight or a Quarrel 

    Argument Is Not Pro-Con Debate 

    Arguments Can Be Explicit or Implicit 

An Explicit Argument Opposing Legalization of Marijuana 

The Defining Features of Argument 

    Argument Requires Justification of Its Claims 

    Argument Is Both a Process and a Product 

    Argument Combines Truth-Seeking and Persuasion 

Argument and the Problem of Truth in the 21st Century

For Writing and Discussion: Role-Playing Arguments


2. The Core of an Argument: A Claim with Reasons

The Classical Structure of Argument

Classical Appeals and the Rhetorical Triangle 

Issue Questions as the Origins of Argument

   Difference between an Issue Question and an Information Question

    How to Identify an Issue Question

For Writing and Discussion: Information Questions Versus Issue Questions

    Difference between a Genuine Argument and a Pseudo-Argument

For Writing and Discussion: Reasonable Arguments Versus Pseudo-Arguments

Frame of an Argument: A Claim Supported by Reasons

    What Is a Reason?

    Expressing Reasons in Because Clauses

For Writing and Discussion: Developing Claims and Reasons 

Writing Assignment: An Issue Question and Working Thesis Statements


3. The Logical Structure of Arguments: Logos

An Overview of Logos: What Do We Mean by the “Logical Structure” of an Argument?

    Formal Logic Versus Real-World Logic

    The Role of Assumptions

    The Core of an Argument: The Enthymeme

    The Power of Audience-Based Reasons

For Writing and Discussion: Identifying Underlying Assumptions and Choosing Audience-Based Reasons

Adopting a Language for Describing Arguments: The Toulmin System

For Writing and Discussion: Developing Enthymemes with the Toulmin Schema

Using Toulmin’s Schema to Plan and Test Your Argument

    Hypothetical Example: Cheerleaders as Athletes

First Part of Chandale’s Argument

Continuation of Chandale’s Argument

    Extended Student Example: Girls and Violent Video Games

Carmen Tieu (Student Essay), Why Violent Video Games Are Good for Girls

    The Thesis-Governed “Self-Announcing” Structure of Classical Argument

For Writing and Discussion: Reasons, Warrants, and Conditions of Rebuttal

Writing Assignment: Plan of an Argument’s Details


4. Using Evidence Effectively

Kinds of Evidence

The Persuasive Use of Evidence

    Apply the STAR Criteria to Evidence

    Establish a Trustworthy Ethos

    Be Mindful of a Source’s Distance from Original Data

Rhetorical Understanding of Evidence

    Angle of Vision and the Selection and Framing of Evidence

For Writing and Discussion: Creating Contrasting Angles of Vision

    Rhetorical Strategies for Framing Evidence

    Strategies for Framing Statistical Evidence

For Writing and Discussion: Using Strategies to Frame Statistical Evidence

    Creating a Plan for Gathering Evidence

Writing Assignment: A Supporting-Reasons Argument


5. Moving Your Audience: Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos

Logos, Ethos, and Pathos as Persuasive Appeals: An Overview

How to Create an Effective Ethos: The Appeal to Credibility

How to Create Pathos: The Appeal to Beliefs and Emotions

    Use Concrete Language

    Use Specific Examples and Illustrations

    Use Narratives

    Use Words, Metaphors, and Analogies with Appropriate Connotations

For Writing and Discussion: Incorporating Appeals to Pathos

Kairos: The Timeliness and Fitness of Arguments

For Writing and Discussion: Analyzing an Argument from the Perspectives of Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos

Using Images to Appeal to Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos

For Writing and Discussion: Analyzing Images as Appeals to Pathos

How Audience-Based Reasons Appeal to Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos

For Writing and Discussion: Planning an Audience-Based Argumentative Strategy

Writing Assignment: Revising a Draft for Ethos, Pathos, and Audience-Based Reasons


6. Responding to Objections and Alternative Views

One-Sided, Multisided, and Delayed-Thesis Arguments

Determining Your Audience’s Resistance to Your Views

Appealing to a Supportive Audience: One-Sided Argument

Appealing to a Neutral or Undecided Audience: Classical Argument

    Summarizing Opposing Views

    Refuting Opposing Views

    Strategies for Rebutting Evidence

    Conceding to Opposing Views

    Example of a Student Essay Using Refutation Strategy 

Trudie Makens (Student Essay), Bringing Dignity to Workers: Make the Minimum Wage a Living Wage

For Writing and Discussion: Refutation Strategies

Appealing to a Resistant Audience: Delayed-Thesis Argument

    ALEXANDER CHANCELLOR, Oh, How I Will Miss the Plastic Bag

    Writing a Delayed-Thesis Argument

    Writing Assignment: A Classical Argument or a Delayed Thesis Argument

Reading

Lauren Shinozuka (Student Essay), The Dangers of Digital Distractedness



II. ENTERING AN ARGUMENTATIVE CONVERSATION


7. Analyzing Arguments Rhetorically

Thinking Rhetorically about a Text

Reconstructing a Text’s Rhetorical Context

    Author, Motivating Occasion, and Purpose

    Audience

    Genre

    Angle of Vision

Asking Questions That Promote Rhetorical Thinking

Conducting a Rhetorical Analysis of a Source Text

    KATHRYN JEAN LOPEZ, Egg Heads

For Writing and Discussion: Identifying Rhetorical Features

    Our Own Rhetorical Analysis of “Egg Heads”

Writing Assignment: A Rhetorical Analysis

Readings

    ELLEN GOODMAN, Womb for Rent

Zachary Stumps (Student Essay), A Rhetorical Analysis Of Ellen Goodman’s “Womb For Rent”


8. Argument as Inquiry: Reading, Summarizing, and Speaking Back

Finding Issues to Explore

    Do Some Initial Brainstorming

    Be Open to the Issues All Around You

    Explore Ideas by Freewriting

For Writing and Discussion: Responding to Visual Arguments About a Living Wage

    Explore Ideas by Idea Mapping

    Explore Ideas by Playing the Believing and Doubting Game

For Writing and Discussion: Playing the Believing and Doubting Game

Summarizing a Stakeholder’s Argument

    JAMES SUROWIECKI, The Pay Is Too Damn Low

    Thinking Steps for Writing a Summary

For Writing and Discussion: Does/Says Statements

    Examples of Summaries

Responding to a Stakeholder’s Argument

    Practicing Believing: Willing Your Own Acceptance of the Writer’s Views

    Practicing Doubting: Willing Your Own Resistance to the Writer’s Views

For Writing and Discussion: Raising Doubts About Surowiecki’s Argument

Thinking Dialectically

For Writing and Discussion: Practicing Dialectic Thinking with Two Articles

    MICHAEL SALTSMAN, To Help the Poor, Move Beyond “Minimum” Gestures

    Three Ways to Foster Dialectic Thinking

Writing Assignment: An Argument Summary or a Formal Exploratory Essay

Reading

Trudie Makens (Student Essay), Should Fast-Food Workers Be Paid $15 per Hour?



III. EXPANDING OUR UNDERSTANDING OF ARGUMENT


9. Making Visual and Multimodal Arguments

Understanding Visual Design Elements in Multimodal Argument

    The Components of Visual Design

    An Analysis of a Multimodal Argument Using Type and Spatial Elements

    An Analysis of a Multimodal Argument Using All the Design Components

For Writing and Discussion: Analyzing an Advocacy Ad

The Compositional Features of Photographs and Drawings

    Compositional Features to Examine in Photos and Drawings

    An Analysis of a Multimedia Video Argument Using Words, Images, and Music

The Genres of Multimodal Argument

    Posters and Fliers

    Public Affairs Advocacy Advertisements

For Writing and Discussion: Analyzing Posters Rhetorically

    Cartoons

For Writing and Discussion: Analyzing Cartoons

    Websites

    Advocacy Videos

Constructing Your Own Multimodal Arguments

    Guidelines for Creating the Visual Elements in Posters, Fliers, and Advocacy Ads

    Guidelines for Creating Video Arguments

For Writing and Discussion: Developing Ideas for an Advocacy Ad or Poster Argument

Using Information Graphics in Arguments

    How Tables Contain a Variety of Stories

    Using a Graph to Tell a Story

    Incorporating Graphics into Your Argument

    A Note on How Graphics Frame Data Rhetorically

Writing Assignment: A Rhetorical Analysis of a Visual Argument, a Multimedia Poster, a Cartoon, or a Short Argument Using Quantitative Data


10. An Alternative to Argument: Collaborative Rhetoric

The Appropriateness and Usefulness of Collaborative Rhetoric

The Principles of Collaborative Rhetoric

    Practicing Nonjudgmental Listening

    Identifying Values, Emotions, and Identities

    Seeking Common Ground

    Promoting Openness to Ongoing Communication and Change

For Writing and Discussion: Listening Empathically and Seeking Common Ground

Preparing for Collaborative Rhetoric Through Reflective Writing and Discussion

    Preparing for Collaborative Rhetoric Through Reflective Writing

    Practicing Collaborative Rhetoric in Discussion

Writing an Open Letter as Collaborative Rhetoric

Colleen Fontana (Student Essay), An Open Letter to Robert Levy in Response to His Article “They Never Learn”

Writing Assignment: An Open Letter as Collaborative Rhetoric

Reading

Monica Allen (Student Essay), An Open Letter to Christopher Eide in Response to His Article “High-Performing Charter Schools Can Close the Opportunity Gap”



IV. FOUR ARGUMENTS IN DEPTH: TYPES OF CLAIMS


11. An Introduction to the Types of Claims

The Types of Claims and Their Typical Patterns of Development

For Writing and Discussion: Identifying Types of Claims

Using Claim Types to Focus an Argument and Generate Ideas: An Example

    Writer 1: Ban E-Cigarettes

    Writer 2: Promote E-Cigarettes as a Preferred Alternative to Real Cigarettes

    Writer 3: Place No Restrictions on E-Cigarettes

Hybrid Arguments: How Claim Types Work Together in Arguments

    Some Examples of Hybrid Arguments

    An Extended Example of a Hybrid Argument

For Writing and Discussion: Exploring Different Claim Types and Audiences

    ALEX HUTCHINSON, Your Daily Multivitamin May Be Hurting You


12. Definition and Resemblance Arguments

What Is at Stake in an Argument about Definition and Resemblance?

    Consequences Resulting from Categorical Claims

The Rule of Justice: Things in the Same Category Should Be Treated the Same Way

For Writing and Discussion: Applying the Rule of Justice

Types of Categorical Arguments

    Simple Categorical Arguments

For Writing and Discussion: Supporting and Rebutting Simple Categorical Claims

    Definition Arguments

    Resemblance Argument Using Analogy

For Writing and Discussion: Developing Analogies

    Resemblance Arguments Using Precedent

For Writing and Discussion: Using Claims of Precedent

Examining Visual Arguments: Claim about Category (Definition)

The Criteria-Match Structure of Definition Arguments

    Overview of Criteria-Match Structure

    Toulmin Framework for a Definition Argument

For Writing and Discussion: Identifying Criteria and Match Issues

    Creating Criteria Using Aristotelian Definition

    Creating Criteria Using an Operational Definition

    Conducting the Match Part of a Definition Argument

Idea-Generating Strategies for Creating Your Own Criteria-Match Argument

    Strategy 1: Research How Others Have Defined the Term

    Strategy 2: Create Your Own Extended Definition

For Writing and Discussion: Developing a Definition

Writing Assignment: A Definition Argument

Exploring Ideas

Identifying Your Audience and Determining What’s at Stake

    Organizing a Definition Argument

    Questioning and Critiquing a Definition Argument

Reading

    Alex Mullen (Student Essay), A Pirate But Not a Thief: What Does “Stealing” Mean in a Digital Environment?


13. Causal Arguments

An Overview of Causal Arguments

    Kinds of Causal Arguments

    Toulmin Framework for a Causal Argument

For Writing and Discussion: Developing Causal Chains

Two Methods for Arguing That One Event Causes Another

    First Method: Explain the Causal Mechanism Directly

    Second Method: Infer Causal Links Using Inductive Reasoning

For Writing and Discussion: Developing Plausible Causal Chains Based on Correlations

Examining Visual Arguments: A Causal Claim

Key Terms and Inductive Fallacies in Causal Arguments

    A Glossary of Key Terms

For Writing and Discussion: Brainstorming Causes and Constraints

Writing Assignment: A Causal Argument

    Exploring Ideas

    Identifying Your Audience and Determining What’s at Stake

    Organizing a Causal Argument

    Questioning and Critiquing a Causal Argument

Reading

    Jesse Goncalves (Student Essay), What Causes Math Anxiety?


14. Evaluation and Ethical Arguments

An Overview of Categorical and Ethical Evaluation Arguments

Constructing a Categorical Evaluation Argument

    Criteria-Match Structure of Categorical Evaluations

    Developing Your Criteria

    Making Your Match Argument

Examining Visual Arguments: An Evaluation Claim

For Writing and Discussion: Developing Criteria and Match Arguments

Constructing an Ethical Evaluation Argument

    Consequences as the Base of Ethics

    Principles as the Base of Ethics

    Example Ethical Arguments Examining Capital Punishment

For Writing and Discussion: Developing an Ethical Argument

Common Problems in Making Evaluation Arguments

Writing Assignment: An Evaluation or Ethical Argument

    Exploring Ideas

    Identifying Your Audience and Determining What’s at Stake

    Organizing an Evaluation Argument

    Questioning and Critiquing a Categorical Evaluation Argument

    Critiquing an Ethical Argument

Readings

Lorena Mendoza-Flores (Student Essay), Silenced and Invisible: Problems of Hispanic Students at Valley High School

JUDITH DAAR AND EREZ ALONI, Three Genetic Parents—For One Healthy Baby


15. Proposal Arguments

The Special Features and Concerns of Proposal Arguments

    Practical Proposals Versus Policy Proposals

    Toulmin Framework for a Proposal Argument

    Special Concerns for Proposal Arguments

Examining Visual Arguments: A Proposal Claim

Developing a Proposal Argument

    Convincing Your Readers That a Problem Exists

    Explaining the Proposed Solution: Showing the Specifics of Your Proposal

    Offering a Justification: Convincing Your Readers That the Benefits of Your Proposal Outweigh the Costs

Using Heuristic Strategies to Develop Supporting Reasons for Your Proposal

    The Claim Types Strategy

For Writing and Discussion: Generating Ideas Using the Claim Types Strategy

    The Stock Issues Strategy

For Writing and Discussion: Brainstorming Ideas for a Proposal

Proposal Arguments as Advocacy Posters or Advertisements

Writing Assignment: A Proposal Argument

    Exploring Ideas

    Identifying Your Audience and Determining What’s at Stake

    Organizing a Proposal Argument

    Designing a One-Page Advocacy Poster or Advertisement

    Designing PowerPoint Slides or Other Visual Aids for a Speech

    Questioning and Critiquing a Proposal Argument

Readings

Ivan Snook (Student Essay), Flirting with Disaster: An Argument against Integrating Women into the Combat Arms

Sandy Wainscott (Student Essay), Why McDonald’s Should Sell Meat and Veggie Pies: A Proposal to End Subsidies for Cheap Meat 82


Appendix 1: Informal Fallacies

Appendix 2: A Concise Guide to Evaluating, Using, and Documenting Sources

Credits

Index